Table of Content

    15 June 2009, Volume 11 Issue 3
    Discussion Opinion about Speedup Application of Male Sterile Hybrid Maize
    Qin Tai-chen
    2009, 11(3):  1-4. 
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    The male sterile hybrid maize failed to achieve large area extension, due to its yield reduction resulted from seed intermix and mismanagement. This paper introduced the research on the male sterile hybrid maize in China, discussed its applying value in male sterile hybridization, defined fertility stability, technological reliability and high yielding characteristics of male sterile hybrid maize, expounded that male sterile could produce pure and unified seed, and highlighted the importance of management. Therefore, the application of male sterile hybridization can not only have the potential of increasing yield, but also enhance economic efficiency and reduce production cost.

    Signal Perception, Transduction and Transcriptional Regulation during Cold Stress in Plant
    ZHANG Rong-xue, ZHANG Zhi-li, ZHANG Zhi-jin, HUANG Rong-feng
    2009, 11(3):  5-11. 
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    Cold is one of the key environmental stressors which affect plant growth and development. The response process of plant to cold is a complex procedure. It includes several steps, such as low temperature signal perception, signal transduction, transcription regulation. Cold can be perceived by plasma membrane either due to changes in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca 2+ permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Cold signal transduction includes calcium signal pathway and other signal pathways, of which calcium signal pathway is an important pathway of cold response process in plant. In this pathway, cytosolic Ca 2+induced by cold can be recognized and transduced by CDPKs, phoshatase and MAPKs. Other signal pathways are mainly related to ABA. Cold signal will at last switch on CBF and non-CBF independent transcriptional cascade, thus to improve plant resistance to cold.

    Structure and Function of LRR Proteins in Plant Defense Mechanism
    ZHANG Ying-yu, MA Rong-cai
    2009, 11(3):  12-18. 
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    A variety of proteins with leucine rich repeats (LRRs) play an important role in plant growth, development, disease resistance and defense mechanism. This article briefly summarized the structure of protein family with LRRs domain and their function related to disease resistance. The protein family with LRRs domain includes R proteins, LRR receptor-like protein kinases (LRRRLKs), polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) and LRR-extensins (LRX). These four protein families recognize and bind the pathogen proteins through LRRs to involve in disease resistance signal transduction, induction of plant defense gene expression, so that access to systemic resistance of plants. The different number of amino acids and repeat units determined the protein recognition specificity and binding capacity.

    Progress of the Research on Intein-mediated Protein Cyclization
    ZHAO Zhong-lin,MA Xin,LIN Min,PING Shu-zhen
    2009, 11(3):  19-23. 
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    Intein-mediated backbone cyclization of proteins is an attractive approach for stabilization of proteins against unfolding. The stabilization achieved is presumably the result of reduced conformational entropy of the unfolded state by formation of a native peptide bond between the N and C termini of a protein of interest. This approach offers a considerable promise for stabilization of pharmaceutical proteins and industrial enzymes.

    Correlations Between OPN Gene and Reproductive Performance of Animals
    WANG Huai-yu
    2009, 11(3):  24-29. 
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    Osteopontin (OPN), which widely distributes in a variety of tissues including the reproductive system, is a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein,and possesses various biological activities. OPN’s extensive physiology functions must mediate through its receptor. OPN is an extracellular matrix, which plays an important role in regulating embryo implantation and placenta development through progestational hormone, and participates almost the entire process of reproduction, and becomes one of the candidate genes about reproductive traits of animals in recent years. The structure and location of OPN gene, the biological functions of OPN as well as correlations between OPN gene and reproductive performance of animals are reviewed.

    Research and Prospect of Fuzhou Longan Germplasm Resources in the National Field Genebank
    HUANG Ai-ping, CHEN Xiu-mei, ZHENG Shao-quan, et al.
    2009, 11(3):  30-34. 
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    Based on cummarizing the importance of preserving Longan germplasm resources and narating the establishment of National Field Genebank for Longan in Fuzhou, we expound the main achievement in collection, preservation, identification and utilization of Longan germplasm resources; and prospect the research work about Longan germplasm resource in China.

    Service Function of Grassland Ecosystem and Countermeasures for Grassland Sustainable Development in China
    ZHANG Li-jian, LI Bing, ZHANG Zhi-ru
    2009, 11(3):  35-39. 
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    Grasslands are one of the main ecosystems in China. It plays important ecosystem service functions. In recent years, great progress have been made in protection and construction of grassland in China, but unreasonable and overload utilization still lead to continuously degradation of grassland in some areas, which affected Chinas ecological security. In regard of supporting life on earth, protecting the ecological environment, regulating climat and maintaining biological diversity, this article expounded service function of China's grassland ecosystem, analyzed main problems in the protection work of grassland resources, and proposed relevant policy suggestions from eight aspects.

    Origin and Development of New Agriculture System
    DENG Xin-an, ZENG Hai-yan
    2009, 11(3):  40-45. 
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    On the basis of reviewing the shaping process of bioeconomy concept and forecasting the forthcoming bioeconomy era, this article systematically analyses the essence of agriculture development and mechanisms for endodriver and exodriver of agriculture expansion; puts forward the concept of “the 3rd agriculture expansion” and new agriculture system (NAS) based on bioeconomy. It points out that NAS is the frame model and strategic vision for “modern agriculture” in future bioec era. The article also reveals the structure, function and characteristic of NAS, and its relation with the vision of the 2nd green revolution.

    Research Progress on Health Functions of Red Adzuki Bean
    ZHAO Jian-jing, FAN Zhi-hong, ZHOU Wei
    2009, 11(3):  46-50. 
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    This paper mainly reviews the research progress on health functions of red adzuki bean in recent years. Red adzuki bean is a kind of popular food in Asian countries and regions, such as China, Japan and Korea. Red adzuki beans contain a variety of bioactive substances including polyphenols, tannins, phytic acid, and saponin etc. Modern research indicates that red adzuki bean has various health functions, including anti-oxidation, anti-diabetic effect, hepatoprotective activity, helping nephropathy recovery, anticancer, antibacterial and antivirus, and so on.

    Acquisition of Microbial Protein Elicitor PeaT1 and Preliminary Research on Inducing Drought Resistance of Rice
    LIU Quan, LI Guang-yue, ZENG Hong-mei, YANG Xiu-fen, QIU De-wen
    2009, 11(3):  51-55. 
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    PeaT1, a protein elicitor isolated and purified from Alternaria tenuissima has been proved to possess the functions of promoting plant growth and increasing plant stress tolerance. In order to further study the functions of PeaT1, a prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-peaT1 was constructed to express and obtain amount of target protein. The PeaT1 was purified by several steps including affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusive chromatography. The effect of PeaT1 on enhancing drought resistance of rice was detected with different concentrations of PeaT1. The result showed that PeaT1 could significantly increase the drought resistance of rice.

    A New SNP in Coding Region of hsp70 Gene and the Association of  Polymorphism with Heat Stress Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle
    HAN Jian-bo, LI Qiu-ling, WANG Chang-fa, et al.
    2009, 11(3):  56-63. 
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    In order to explore the association of hsp70 gene polymorphism with heat stress traits \[rectal temperature (RT) and potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE)\] in 290 heads of Chinese Holstein cattle, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect possible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hsp70 gene, genotypes were analyzed by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique, SBYE method was used to quantify hsp70 mRNA expression in different tissues through fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. We found a G/A SNP at nucleotide 1524, resulting two genotypes of AA and AB. Allele and genotype frequencies were 0.957 0 and 0.043 0, and 0.913 7 and 0.086 3, respectively. χ2 test showed that the population was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Association analysis indicated that there was no difference in RT between AA and AB genotypes, however, the PCE was significantly different between AA and AB genotypes. The results of the fluorescent quantitative RTPCR study showed that the expression of hsp70 mRNA in the liver was significantly higher than other tissues (P<0.05). We presume that the G/A SNP at nucleotide 1524 in the hsp70 gene might be in association with heat stress in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Preparation of Immunoglobulin G Lipsomes from Milk Fat Globule Membrane Phospholipids
    LI Bo-qun, LIANG Bing, LIU Ning
    2009, 11(3):  64-70. 
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    A MFGM(milk fat globule membrane)-derived phospholipid fraction was used to produce the immuno-globulin G (IgG) liposomes via a high-pressure homogenizer. The effects of different concentration of phospholipids, homogeneous pressures and the number of passes through the homogenizer on entrapment efficiency and average particle size of the IgG liposomes-MFGM were investigated. The results showed that as the concentration of phospholipids increased, the entrapment efficiency and average particle size also increased. Homogeneous pressure and the number of passes through the homogenizer affect the entrapment efficiency and average particle size in different degrees. The entrapment efficiency of the liposomes is 52%, and the effective diameter is between 100 nm and 200 nm. We detected the phase transition in the composition materials of the liposomes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The transmission electron micrographs showed that all the liposomes were spherical vesicles. It was indicated that a success preparation of an esculent liposome derived from ingredient of milk.

    Studies on Culturing Apostichopus japonicus Auricularia with Marine Yeast as Feed
    ZHAO Yu-ming, MAO Yu-ze
    2009, 11(3):  71-75. 
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    Marine yeast (Rhodotorula sp.) was used as an alternative bait of single-cell microalgae to culture Apostichopus japonicus auricularia. By five indicators of growth rate (G), the survival rate of planktonic period (SRP), survival rate of metamorphosis (SRM), specific growth rate (SGR) and 40% bottleshaped larvae time (T), the effect of feeding with marine yeast group (Z9) was compared with that of by different types and proportion of singlecell microalgae mixed feed groups (altogether 8 combinations, from Z1 to Z8), and confirmed the optimum feeding combination in different growth phases with marine yeast. The results showed that marine yeast could promote the normal development and metamorphosis of larvae ANOVA analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the targets for growth and survival rate among different diet groups. There were no significant differences between groups Z2 and Z9, but the effect of these 2 groups were notably better than the other single-cell microalgae mixed groups. Besides, different feeding quantities also had significant influences on auricularia.

    Cloning and Expression of Δ6-Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene from Phaeodactylum tricornutum in Pichia pastoris
    LI Yun-tao, LI Mao-teng, YU Long-jiang
    2009, 11(3):  76-80. 
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    γ-linolenic acid plays important roles in human nutrition and health. Genetic manipulation is one of preferable alternatives to increase production that meets the needs of increasing demand of γ-linolenic acid. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the desaturation from the linoleic acid (C18∶2 Δ9,12) to γ-linolenic acid. In this study, the Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene in the Phaeodactylum tricornutum was cloned; the recombinant Pichia pastoris expression vector of pPIC3.5KD6 which contains the cloned gene was constructed and expressed in P. pastoris strain. The results showed that the recombinant P. pastoris was induced by methanol for expression. The GC-MS analysis indicated that intracellular fatty acid composed γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid (SDA, C 18∶4 Δ6,9,12,15) in the recombinant yeast, the contents were 2.5% and 0.8%, respectively.

    Screening of High Nitrite Reductase Producing Strains and the Optimization of Fermentation
    ZHENG Huai-zhong, CHEN Fa-he, LI Shu-yan, SUN Jun-she, LIU Ping
    2009, 11(3):  81-87. 
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    The nitrite reductase production strain B.megaterium MPF-906 was treated with UV. The high nitrite reductase producing mutant Z85 was obtained and its nitrite reductase activity was 28.76 U/mL. The effects of compositions of culture medium and cultural conditions on nitrite reductase production were investigated. The optimal culture media are: glucose 1.5%, beef extract 0.2%, (NH4)2SO4 0.1%,  K2HPO4 0.135%, KH2PO4 0.07%, NaCl 0.1%, MgSO4·7H2O 0.04%, MnSO4·H2O 0.001%, CaCl2·2H2O 0.002%. The fermentation conditions are 30℃ for 20 h, 160 rpm, initial pH 6.5 and 4% of inoculation. Under this optimized conditions, the nitrite reductase activity reached 45.94 U/mL.

    Mutation of Y370 Residue in NifA Protein Affects the Transcription of Nitrogen Fixation Genes in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501
    FAN Hui-li, YAN Yong-liang, LI Yan, et al.
    2009, 11(3):  88-92. 
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    The positive regulator protein NifA activates the expression of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in many diazotrophs. Sequence analysis shows that a crucial tyrosine residue in region C6 of NifA protein is highly conserved (Y370 in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501). β-galactosidase activity analysis showed that Y370C mutant could neither activate the expression of nifH, nor restore nitrogenase activity of NifA deletion mutant strain A1506, while the wild type stain could do so. It was demonstrated that Y370 in NifA protein was critical for the transcriptional activation of nif genes in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, and the mechanism needed further investigation.

    Screening and Phenotypic Analysis of a Suppressor of Cryptochromes Mutant in Arabidopsis
    CHEN Fu-lu1, LI Hong-yu1, LIN Chen-tao1,2, FU Yong-fu1
    2009, 11(3):  93-97. 
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    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that share similarity with the sequence of amino acids in DNA photolyase but lack photolyase activity. Among members of cryptochromes gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, cryptochrome1 (CRY1) and CRY2 primarily mediate blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic promotion of floral initiation, respectively, although their functions do overlap. The cry1cry2 double mutant flowered later than wild-type under long day conditions. Through activation tagging, we identified an early flowering mutant called scc17-D (suppressor of cry1cry2#17-Dominant). TAIL-PCR results showed that a T-DNA insertion located between At1g25440 and At1g25450 in the first chromosome is responsible for the scc17-D  mutant. The scc17-D  mutant displayed dwarfism, reduction in leaf size, reduced length of siliques, and the altered shape of cotyledon pavement cells.

    Effects of Eupatorium adenophorum Flavonoid 3’-Hydroxylase Over
    expression on POD and PAL Activity in Transgenic Tobacco
    ZHANG Song-huan, LI Chun-qi, GUO Hui-ming, PEI Xi-xiang, CHENG Hong-mei
    2009, 11(3):  98-101. 
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    Eupatorium adenophorum has strong allelopathy, and can suppress all plants around it.  Flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase belongs to cytochrome P450(CYP) monooxygenase, which can catalyze oxidation reactions that depend on the substrate NADPH or NADH, and play an important role in plant allelopathy. Using  F3’H  gene transgenic tobacco as material, POD and PAL activities of transgenic tobacco were tested compared with that in control tobacco and transgenic tobacco with pBI121 vector. The results showed that POD activity value of transgenic tobacco with  F3’H  gene is 3.8 times to control tobacco, twice to transgenic tobacco transformed pBI121 vector, while PAL activity value of transgenic tobacco with  F3’H  gene is 4 times to control tobacco, twice to transgenic tobacco transformed pBI121 vector. So we speculate that  F3’H  gene is considered important for defense against exogenous damage.

    Effects of Cadmium Treatment on Seed Quality and Yield of Different Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes
    SHAN Shi-hua, FAN Zhong-xue, LV Xiao, YANG Zhi-yi, WAN Shu-bo
    2009, 11(3):  102-108. 
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    Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of 12 mg/kg cadmium treatment on yields, Cd contents and seed quality of fifteen peanut genotypes(Arachis hypogaea L.). The results indicated that the yield and quality had significant differences within genotypes. The Cd contents in seeds after Cd treatment differed significantly not only from control group, but also between different genotypes. The seed protein contents of  different peanut genotypes varied after Cd treatment, but the yield and unsaturated fatty acid contents changed a little. The Cd contents of all peanut seeds after Cd treatment in this research exceeded the standard. They were not edible. It was concluded that XD011 was the strongest Cdtolerant genotype among all the tested fifteen peanut genotypes.

    An Impact Assessment Approach for Agriculture Scientific Research Achievement of Quality-enhancing Type and its Application in Male Silkworm Breeding
    ZHANG She-mei, MAO Xiao-bao, HUANG Wei, XU Hong-dai
    2009, 11(3):  109-115. 
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    Dynamic evaluation of investment in agricultural research system DREAM was used to estimate the economic benefits of hightech male silkworm breeding technology, and to discuss the evaluation methods of qualityenhancing agricultural research. The results showed that the studies on male silkworm breeding technology could bring about obvious economic benefit and significant high IRR; yield change is the most sensitive factor than seed cost, variety span and cocoon price gap; impact assessment on technology would be more objective and comprehensive through the movement of market demand curve to approximately reflect the impact of quality enhancing on economic benefit.

    Breeding Characteristics and Applying Foreground of a New Wheat Variety Huapei No. 5
    KANG Ming-hui, WANG Shi-jie, ZHOU Xin-bao, HAI Yan, DA Long-zhu, ZHAO Yong-ying
    2009, 11(3):  116-120. 
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    Huapei No. 5 was a new wheat variety developed through crossing Yu No.18 with Hua No. 4-3 by Crop New Variety Key Laboratory of He'nan Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was released by anther culture and certified by national crop variety releasing committee in 2006. The breeding characteristics of Huapei No. 5 were as follows: two parents complement well; its genetic background was rich; the combination presented a high inducing rate that provided a large amount of separate population; the progenies population characters were used as main selection target which enhance the selective accuracy;its yield comparative test was carried out at two different areas, which shortened the breeding period. Through Huanghui regional test, production test and extention and planting practice, Huapei No. 5 is proven to be an excellent winter wheat variety with properties of high and stable yield, good quality, and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to grow as a mid-late seeding variety in mid-high yield and water-fertilizer field in southern Huanghui winter wheat region.

    Studies on Refining of Lycopene Oleoresin by Ultrasound-assisted Saponification
    ZHANG Cheng, CHEN Fang, ZHAO Guang-hua, LIAO Xiao-jun
    2009, 11(3):  121-125. 
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    Ultrasonicassisted saponification method was used to refine lycopene oleoresin. Single-factor experiment results showed that three main factors including KOH dosage, reaction time and ultrasonic power have significant impact on the refining of lycopene oleoresin. The better parameters are as follows: KOH dosage is 4.50 g, saponification reaction time is 2 h, and ultrasonic power is 250 W. The refining of lycopene oleoresin by ultrasoundassisted saponification can significantly improve the purity, color value and scavenging activity to DPPH· free radical of lycopene oleoresin.

    Studies on the Characteristics of Honeycomb Briquette Compressed from Cattle Manure and Coal Mixture
    HAN Lei, DONG Hong-min, TAO Xiu-ping
    2009, 11(3):  126-130. 
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    Cattle manure poses tremendous environmental problems, since it can not be fully utilized due to the monotony of the treatment technology. Considering the combustibility of cattle manure as a biomass resource, the feasibility of compress molding technology and the characteristics of honeycomb briquette of cattle manure and coal mixture were investigated at different weight ratios of cattle manure to coal. The results showed that cattle manure and coal mixture could be compressed into honeycomb briquette by optimizing the weight ratio of cattle manure to coal to be less than 4∶6. The sulfur content in the honeycomb briquette of cattle manure and coal mixture was lower than that in coal honeycomb briquette. Its feasible to compress cattle manure and coal mixture and make honeycomb briquette from it.

    Analysis of Present Soil Nutritional Situation in Major |Flue-cured Tobacco Production Regions
    CHENG Bao-yu,MA Jing-min,CHENG Lan,QI Chun-miao,CHANG Jian-bo
    2009, 11(3):  131-136. 
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    By collecting and testing the soil samples from representative tobacco fields of Lushi, Lingbao, Shanxian and Mianchi Counties of He'nan Province, Sanmenxia City, the soil nutrition contents in tabacco fields at main tobacco production regions were studied. The characteristics of soil nutrient contents in tobacco fields of each county were analyzed. Combing with production practice, corresponding fertilizer application tactics were put forward.