Table of Content

    15 October 2012, Volume 14 Issue 5
    Analysis and Suggestion on Development of China Agricultural Advanced Technologies and Emerging Industries
    JIA Jing-dun1§, HE Rong-hai1,2§, WEI Xun1§, JIANG Dan-ping1, ZHANG Bo1,3, GE Yi
    2012, 14(5):  1-6.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.01
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    The development of agricultural advanced technologies (AAT) and the corresponding agricultural emerging industries (AEI) in China were analyzed from 6 fields, including agricultural biotechnology, agricultural information technology and equipment, biomass energy and bio-based materials, agricultural resources and environmental untilization, agricultural pesticides and biological products, food nutrition and food manufacturing. The emerging problems and the corresponding suggestion on AAT and AEI were also discussed in this article.

    An Immature Suggestion for Grassland Agriculture Innovation Model on Food Security
    TANG Yu-tong1,2, LIN Hui-long1,2*
    2012, 14(5):  7-14.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.02
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    Through analyzing the existing food safety model and food consumption trends in China, we found that the demand for rapid growth in feed will take up 70% of the food equivalent, which is causing great pressure on food safety. Thus the traditional single arable agriculture will be unable to meet peoples requirements for food. As a creative thinking about food safety, grassland agriculture contains enormous production potential and developing plant-eating livestock can solve the problem of feed lack. After years research, grassland workers in China have proposed various grassland agricultural innovation models on food security, such as rice/corn-Italian ryegrass rotation system of rural areas in south China, perennial mixed sown pasture system of hill country and pastoral areas in China, grass-crop rotation system of loess plateau area in China, the “company+breeding area/farmer specialized cooperatives+farm households” cornstalk-beef cattle breeding system in Hexi Corridor and perennial mixed sown pasture-“grain+grass+livestock breeding” system in the ecotone between agriculture and pasture in north China. The results showed that conspicuous effects could be achieved to save food, and increase production. Therefore, we can build efficient grassland agriculture system to protect food safety.

    Innovation Theory and Agricultural Innovation System
    LIANG Meng
    2012, 14(5):  15-21.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.03
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    Agricultural development depends on agricultural innovation, and comprehensive understanding about agriculture development must be conducted from the system perspective. Based on the innovation theory and the integration of sectoral innovation systems theory and induced innovation theory, this paper proposes a new model of agricultural innovation system. The author believes that to analyze the agricultural innovation system must pay attention not only to its structure essentials (resource endowment, knowledge base and technology, actors and network, institution and demand), but also to its function achievement (7 key processes in agricultural innovation system, i.e. knowledge development, resource mobilization, market formation, impact on research direction, entrepreneurial experimentation, institutionalization, development of external economy, and their actual performance). The influence factors of agricultural innovation system include its structural elements, operating mechanism, and external surrounding. The development of agriculture innovation system requires identifying mechanism that blocked its development; finding out relevant policy; and constantly adjusting its structural elements and operating mechanism.

    Subcellular Localization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Binding Proteins VirD2 and VirE2 in Rice
    YAN Ting-xiang, LUO Mei-zhong*
    2012, 14(5):  22-27.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.04
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    In the process of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated infection of plants, at least 5 virulence (Vir) proteins play roles by entering the host cells, among which VirD2 and VirE2 are the key factors. Consequently, studying the sub-cellular localization of VirD2 and VirE2 in rice is crucial to understand the mechanism of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated rice genetic transformation. Using the transient expression system of rice sheath protoplasts, we found that the VirD2 proteins of all 3 kinds of opine Agrobacterium are completely located in the nucleus, which is the same as in Arabidopsis; and the VirE2 proteins of all 3 kinds of opine Agrobacterium are mainly located in nucleus, but are also distributed in the cytoplasm, which is different from those in Arabidopsis. Therefore, we propose the different efficiency among the 3 kinds of opine Agrobacterium strains for rice genetic transformation is not mainly determined by sub-cellular localization of VirD2 and VirE2. In addition, our results demonstrate that the mechanism of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation in rice and Arabidopsis share some similarities, but keep some differences.

    Over-expression of OsAPX1 Gene Enhances Heat Resistance and Anti-oxidant Tolerance in Rice
    AN Liao-yuan1, NIU Xiang-li1,2, HUANG Long-xiang1, LIU Yong-sheng1,2*
    2012, 14(5):  28-32.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.05
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    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), a key enzyme to scavenge active oxygen species in plants, plays an important role in stress responses. In the study, over-expression vector of rice OsAPX1 gene was constructed and introduced into rice cultivar Nipponbare by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the remarkable increase of OsAPX1 level in transgenic plants. The primary generation (T0) over-expression lines showed significant lower sterile rates in field under high temperature than that of the wild type. The transgenic plants exhibited improved resistance to heat and hydrogen peroxide. It suggested that rice OsAPX1 gene has an effect on active oxygen scavenging, and over-expression of OsAPX1 could enhance heat tolerance in rice.

    Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of symrk Gene Cloned from Arachis hypogaea L.
    DUAN Xiao-hong1,2, GENG Li-li2, SHU Chang-long2, ZHU Yan-ming1, ZHANG Jie2*
    2012, 14(5):  33-41.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.06
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    Symbiosis receptor-like protein kinase (SYMRK) plays a key regulatory role in the symbiosis pathway of plant and microorganism. The full length and 560 bp upstream sequence of symrk gene were cloned from Arachis hypogaea Baisha1016 by genome-walking, respectively. Characters of the Ah-symrk and encoded amino acid residue sequence, including the general physical and chemical properties, transmembrane helices domains, localization sites in cells and senior structure, were predicted and analyzed by the methods of bioinformatics. The result showed that Ah-symrk contained 15 exons and 14 introns, and the cDNA full-length of Ah-symrk was 3 042 bp containing a complete ORF(2 781 bp), which encoded 926 amino acid. The protein kinase was a hydrophobic-acidic protein, which located in cell membrane. Three copies of root-motif-tapox1 related to root-specific expression were contained in upstream regulatory sequence. The result of RT-PCR showed that Ah-symrk was root-specific gene.

    Insecticidal Effect of Transgenic Tobacco Harboring cry2Ab4 or vip3Aa11 Gene on Agrotis ypsilon
    GAO Chuan1,2, LANG Zhi-hong2, ZHU Li2, SONG Fu-ping3, ZHANG Yong-jun3, ZHANG Jie
    2012, 14(5):  42-48.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.07
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    Agrotis ypsilon is a destructive pest in agricultural production. The way to improve crop resistance against Agrotis ypsilon by genetic manipulation is available. Previously, the cry2Ab4 gene and vip3Aa11 gene were cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis. Two plant expressive vectors pCS2Ab and pCSvip3A harboring cry2Ab4 gene and vip3Aa11 gene were constructed and transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) NC89 by Agrobacterium mediated method. 32 and 35 positive regenerated plants were obtained and confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The insect-resistant capability in the transgenic tobacco plants with pCS2Ab and pCSvip3A vectors had also been detected by bioassay. The mortality of Agrotis ypsilon larvae fed with leaves from transgenic plants was above 82%, which was significantly more than the contrast. The insecticidal activity of transgenic tobacco harboring vip3Aa11 gene is higher than that of transgenic tobacco with cry2Ab4 gene.

    Overexpression of Pterin Reductase Gene PTR1 Enhances Folate Biosynthesis in Plants
    LU Ye, LIU Xiao-ning, JIANG Ling, ZHANG Chun-yi*
    2012, 14(5):  49-56.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.08
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    Folates are small-molecule metabolites maintaining the normal life activities of organisms. The reduced pterins can participate in folate synthesis. We investigated the effects of the NADPH-dependent pterin reductase (PTR1) from Leishmania spp. on plant folate biosynthesis by over-expressing this gene in model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The Leishmania PTR1 gene was cloned and transformed into Arabidopsis and tobacco, respectively, under the control of the constitutive promoter, and folates were measured in the transgenic overexpressors. The results showed that the folate content was enhanced significantly in the transformed plants. The content of 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was substantially increased, and that of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate in transgenic tobacco plants was markedly improved. This research indicated that introduction of PTR1 gene into plants could improve folate biosynthesis, which had provided technological bases for better understanding the rule of folate biosynthesis in plants.

    Subcellular Localization and Expression Analysis of Transcription Factor AtWRKY28 under Biotic Stresses
    ZHONG Gui-mai, WU Lin-tao, WANG Jian-mei, YANG Yi, LI Xu-feng*
    2012, 14(5):  57-63.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.09
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    The transcription factor WRKY family is one type of key regulatory components for plant development and defense against stress factors. In this paper, we found that AtWRKY28 gene was located in the nucleus,and the expression profiles of AtWRKY28 genes under abiotic stress were analyzed by q-PCR. The results showed that the expression of AtWRKY28 changed significantly during stress treatments including wounding, NaCl and ABA, suggesting a specific role of AtWRKY28 in adaptation to environmental stresses. In addition, we analyzed the sequence of the promoters with bioinformatics approach, some cis-elements involved in abiotic stresses and hormonal responses were revealed. These results provided important information for studying the biological functions of AtWRKY28 gene.

    Research Progress on the Biological Containment to Control Transgene Flow
    JIN Xi, WANG Zhi-xing*, WANG Xu-jing, JIA Shi-rong
    2012, 14(5):  64-70.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.10
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    GM crop acreage increased year by year, the global acreage of GM crops has reached 160 million hm2 in 2011, an increase of nearly 94 times compared to acreage of 1996. With a large area of commercial cultivation of GM crops, the resulting bio-security issues are attracted more and more attention, which the pollen-mediated gene flow is one of the focus problems. It is the current international hot spot and focus on biosafety research to explore the biological measures for transgenic drift control. Therefore, more biological measures were reviewed, such as plastid transformation technology, transgene excision technology, transgene mitigation technology, male and female sterility technology, seed sterility technology, cleistogamy and apomixis technology, split transgenic technology and controlled transgenic technology, future research directions were also prospected.

    Improvement of Lactase Secretion Level |by Fusion Expression with Tag in Pichia pastoris
    NIE Chun-ming1,2§, NING Xiao-yan2§, ZHANG Yu-hong2*, FAN Xiao-hu1,2, ZHAO Guo-f
    2012, 14(5):  71-77.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.11
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    Lactase of Bifidobacterium have potential application value in lactose hydrolysis and galactooligosaccharides production, due to its advantages of safety and highly catalysis efficiency. In this study, four protein tag genes, cherry, cbd(cellulose-binding domains), gst(glutathione S-transferase) and mbp (maltose-binding protein), were fused with the gene bg42-106m in vector pPIC9 by genetic technology, respectively. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, respectively. As a result, a high yield strain coexpressed with cherry gene was obtained. The secretion level of bG42-106M in medium achieved 7.42 U/mL, which was 290% higher compared with the wide type strain. However, the CBD, GST and MBP tags had no effect on improvement of expression and secretion level of bG42-106M.

    Research Progress in Applying GIS Technology in Modern Tobacco Agriculture
    FAN Xing-long1, ZHOU Ji-heng1*, LI Qiang1, XIAO Zhi-xin2, CHEN Chu3, HU Zhi-ming
    2012, 14(5):  78-83.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.12
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    GIS is the basis of variable management of agriculture and a tool for developing modern agriculture in the 21st century. It is gradually paid attention by the people along with the putting forward of concept of digital agriculture. At present, the GIS technology has many successful cases in the application of the tobacco industry in our country, but it is relatively less developed in the area of raw tobacco material industry. This paper summarized the cases of applying research in tobacco agriculture production based on GIS technology in the field of tobacco agricultural production. It is conducted to provide references for accelerating the automation and precision development of tobacco agriculture production in China.

    Prediction Study on Tianjin Land-use based on CA-Markov Model
    HUANG Xiao-lei1, LIU Dong-yun2, FENG Zhong-ke1*, QIU Qi1, MIAO Jie1
    2012, 14(5):  84-89.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.13
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    CA-Markov model  has been  more and more widely used in the field of land-use study. In order to study the changing law of land use in Tianjin, this paper takes ETM / TM remote sensing images of 1999 and 2007 as basic data; and carries out dynamic simulation and prediction on the landscape pattern of Tianjin from 2015-2023 by CA-Markov model. The results showed that between 1999 and 2007, the artificial wetland  and construction use land showed an increasing trend; while the natural wetland and arable land decreased year by year; the area change of the rest  types of land was not big. The result of CA-Markov model predictions showed that the land-use change trends in 2007-2015 and 2015-2023 were similar as that in 1999-2007, the natural landscape was gradually changed to man-made landscape. The pattern of the various types of land can be reasonably adjusted according to the prediction results, thus providing a scientific basis for land management and planning of this area.

    Research Progress on Method for Nitrite Abatement in Pickles
    LI Xue-ping, MENG Xian-gang*, LI Jian-hong
    2012, 14(5):  90-95.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.14
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    Pickles is a kind of lactic acid fermented food, which is full of vitamins and nutrients. But nitrite produces during traditional fermentation process inevitably, which has extremely adverse impact on peoples health, and also limits its further extension and application. On the basis of analyzing nitrite production principle and its impact on human health, this paper systematically summarized the research progress on methods of nitrite abatement in pickles. It intended to provide references for eliminating the hazards of nitrite in pickles, and to give certain guidance for pickles standardized production.

    Studies on Characteristics of Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization under Water-saving Cultivation in Winter Wheat Region of North China Plain
    QIN Xin, LIU Ke, ZHOU Shun-li*
    2012, 14(5):  96-101.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.15
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    For clarifying the characteristics of nitrogen absorption and utilization under water-saving cultivation and traditional irrigation in winter wheat region of North China Plain, a two years experiment was conducted with 4 water treatments: no irrigation (W0), irrigation at jointing stage (W1), irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages (W2), irrigation at re-greening, booting, anthesis and filling stages (W4) based on the irrigation before sowing in 2008-2010, so as to test plant nitrogen absorption and yield at different growing periods. The results indicated that the highest winter wheat yield occurred in water-saving treatments (W1 in 2008/2009, W2 in 2009/2010). N accumulation amount increased along with the raising of irrigation rate, the highest was obtained by traditional irrigation treatment (W4). Compared with the traditional irrigation, water-saving irrigation accelerated N accumulation process of winter wheat; promoted N accumulated before anthesis to reallocate to grain; increased N harvest index and physiological utilization efficiency. Therefore, water-saving cultivation has not only decreased water consumption and achieved high-yielding, but also improved the characteristics of N absorption and utilization of winter wheat.

    Yield Potential Evaluation of Elite Maize Hybrids Released in Different Periods of China under the Environment of Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    LV Ling
    2012, 14(5):  102-107.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.16
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    Seventeen elite maize hybrids released in periods after 1970s in China were selected to evaluate their yield potential with different density treatment under the ideal environment of Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The results showed that, a continuous increasing of yield potential for maize hybrids in our country was found. At same time, interaction between yield potential and planting density showed obvious difference for hybrids released in different periods. In general, the hybrids, released in 1980s and 1990s, got their highest yield under the medial planting density, but those hybrids that were popular in the 21st century showed good tolerance to high planting density and had the higher yield potential compared with the other hybrids. The interactions between yield potential and planting density showed the transformation of breeding strategy in China, that was from focusing on yield potential of single plant to yield potential of population.

    Experimental Studies on Irrigating Protected Tomato by Treated Sewage from Small Town
    CHEN Yong-xing, SHANG Bin, TAO Xiu-ping, DONG Hong-min*
    2012, 14(5):  108-114.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.17
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    To investigate the impact of irrigating treated sewage from small town on yield, fruit quality and safety of protected soilless cultured tomato, the effluents from Changping Sewage Treatment Center and a constructed rapid infiltration system were used as irrigation water for tomato plants. The results showed that the yields of tomato irrigated with sewage were slightly lower than that of the control, but there was no difference in the single-fruit weight between all treatments. Qualities of tomato fruits irrigated with the 2 types of sewage were not negatively affected. However, the total zinc content in tomato fruits may exceed the standard requirement in the long run. Based on these results, it can be concluded that reuse of treated sewage from small town as irrigation water for tomato cultured in soilless green house would be feasible and relatively safe. The results provide scientific data support for the efficient recycling of small town sewage in agriculture.

    Studies on the Activities of Three Kinds of Soil Enzyme, Organic Matters, Microbes and the Yields and Quality of Apple in Different Tree-aged Apple Orchards in Loess Plateau
    TIAN Jia1, SUN Chao1, YANG Ming-yan2, ZHANG Xiao-qi1*
    2012, 14(5):  115-122.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.18
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    The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, invertase, soil organic matters and soil microbes were measured in 6 different apple orchards of Luochuan County in Loess plateau. The correlation of the content of soil organic matter, soil enzymes activity, soil microbes and apple quality was analyzed. The results showed that: ①The activities of the three kinds of soil enzyme in different orchards all present a descending trend with soil depth. The activities of enzyme are relatively higher in the soil ranging from 0 to 20 cm; however the activities decrease rapidly when the depth is below 20 cm, and then the downtrend is flat. ②The soil organic matters of the six apple orchards are lower, and the mean is 0.945%. ③The numbers of microbes in different aged trees orchard can be showed as: middle-aged orchard(15 a)>old-aged orchard(20 a)>small-aged orchard(7 a). The distributing characteristic of the number of microbes in different aged trees orchard is: bacteria>actinomyce>fungi. The difference between the number of bacteria and fungi is more than 100 times. The number of microbes in surface soil (0~20 cm) is the highest, and diminishes by the deepening of the soil profile, with a significant vertical distribution. ④Organic matters show a positive correlation with the activities of urease, phosphatase and invertase. The values of r are 0.400, 0.565 and 0.788, respectively. The three kinds of enzyme have shown a strong correlation each other. ⑤Enzymes activity, organic matters and soil microbes show a positive correlation with the apple quality.

    Studies on Ripening Degree and Mature Characteristics of Tobacco Upper Leaves in One-time Harvest
    ZHANG Shu-tang
    2012, 14(5):  123-129.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.19
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    In order to verify the effect of one-time harvest on improving ripening degree and quality of upper  leaves, and to determine the ripening degree features and standard for upper leaves by one-time harvest that is suitable for actual situation of Yunnan Province, 4 treatments were designed as harvesting after transplanting 105±5 d, 115±5 d,125±5 d,130±5 d, and studies on the ripening degree and mature characteristics and their relation with improving ripening degree and quality of upper  leaves by one-time harvest were carried out. The result showed that the optimal field ripening degree and mature characteristics of upper leaves by one-time harvest suitable for Yunnan Province were as follows: the plant is 120 to 130 days after transplanting, the top first to third leave turned yellow by 60%~80%, SPAD value of chlorophyll is 20 to 30, and there is no significant difference between SPAD value of the 2nd and 5th leaves. The quality of cured leaves harvested by that time has good exterior appearance, harmonious main chemical components, improved smoking quality and high industrail availability.

    Initial Studied on Optimal Phosphorus Application Rate and Ratio Between Basal and Topdressing for Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch Production
    ZHOU Li-li, QI Jian-jun, SUN Peng, NIU Shi-jie, JIAO Lian-kui, LI Xian-en*
    2012, 14(5):  130-135.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.20
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    Optimal phosphorus (P) management and ratio between basal and topdressing can not only increase root yield of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch at harvest, improve its quality, but also increase famers income. Two years on-farm field experiments was conducted to summarize the characteristics of dry-matter accumulation and P demand, to study the influence of optimal total P fertilizer quantity and ratio between basal and topdressing fertilization on the growth and yield of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Whatever dry-matter and P uptake, the accumulation peaks occurred from root elongate to root enlargement periods. Increasing the P fertilizer amount, especially P fertilization at root elongate phase, could significantly promote the roots/leaves ratio, and increase root yield at harvest. We understand that under present production conditions, the optimal P fertilizer amount is 72~88 kg P2O5/hm2, and the ration between basal and topdressing fertilization should be 1∶1 at root elongate phase.

    Development and Polymorphism Analysis of SNP |Marker in LYZ of Strongylocentrotus intermedius
    CONG Xiao-fei, DING Jun*, CHANG Ya-qing
    2012, 14(5):  136-144.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0864.2012.05.21
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    Mutation scanning of Strongylocentrotus intermedius genes was conducted by high-resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis technology. 26 alternative SNP loci were screened out. Among them, 16 were base substitution accounting for 61.54%, 6 were base deletion or insertion accounting for 23.08%. The number of missing bases was ranging from 1 to 4. 4 are fuzzy base substitution type and tri-state loci accounting for 15.38%. According to these figures, SNP frequency distribution in this gene is about 2.85%, and 18 loci in the coding region, among which 2 are missense mutations. We analyzed 5 SNP loci using small amplicon genotyping in 60 individuals from 2 populations from different regions. The results indicated that all 5 loci had 2 alleles, the minor allele frequency ranged from 0.150 0 to 0.500 0, and SILyz-7, SILyz-15 and SILyz-20 had large differences in minor allele frequency between 2 populations. It could be speculated that HRM is an efficient and reliable SNP analysis method, and the BNP marker could be used for studying Strongylocentrotus intermedius genetics and breeding.

    Research Progress on Fish Genetically Engineered Vaccine
    TIAN Yuanyuan, YE Xing*
    2012, 14(5):  145-152.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.10080864.2012.05.22
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    At present, vaccination is the most costeffective way to control diseases in fish. The rapid development in immunology and bioengineering has greatly promoted the studies on genetically engineered vaccines for fish. It overcomes some defects and deficiencies of the traditional vaccines and shows great application prospect, and has become a research focus on aquaculture at home and abroad. This paper reviewed the present status and achievements gained in genetically engineered vaccine against fish pathogens, and problems encountered in commercialization of fishery genetically engineered vaccines that need to be solved urgently.