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    Global Genetically Modified Crop Industrialization Trends in 2022
    Haohui LI, Caiyue LIU, Haiwen ZHANG, Xujing WANG, Qiaoling TANG, Youhua WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (12): 6-16.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0756
    Abstract1084)   HTML67)    PDF (752KB)(651)       Save

    Since the commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops in 1996, their industrial applications have developed rapidly in worldwide with increasing planting area and crop types, which have significant economic and social benefits. This paper analyzed the global situation of GM crops cultivation in 2022, and the development trends of major countries and regions planting GM crops. In 2022, the planting area of GM crops accounted for about 12% of the total arable land area with an increase of 3.3%. The number of the countries approved to cultivate GM crops increased to 29, and 71 countries and regions approved the commercial application of GM products. Based on the planting area of GM crops, the GM corn and soybean were dominant, and the planting area of the GM crops with multiple traits was also constantly expanding. The industrial applications of GM crops will become new growth driver for agricultural production and economic development, and the applications and effects of GM crops will continuously increase with the iterative upgrading of bioengineering breeding technologies.

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    Research Progress of Aquaponics System
    Ruikang SUN, Jinghua FU, Minjun XU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (9): 227-233.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0598
    Abstract325)   HTML19)    PDF (1086KB)(216)       Save

    Aquaponics is an innovative compound production system composed of recirculating aquaculture and hydroponic cultivation, which has the characteristics of high resource utilization rate, no chemical fertilizers and antibiotics, low consumption, high efficiency and sustainability. It is considered as a modern agricultural farming system of ecological protection. Although aquaponics system has developed rapidly in recent years and has been widely promoted and applied, it still lacks systematic cognition and holistic analysis. This paper summarized the technological development of aquaponics system, the main research contents, research progress and development trend at home and abroad. Combined with the development status of aquaponics system, it was predicted that the future aquaponics system construction would tend to be decoupled and ecological, the layout would move toward urbanization and three-dimensional, the large-scale intelligent and commercial implementation would be carried out, and the trend would be diversified and integrated innovation. Meanwhile, relevant improvement suggestions were put forward, which aimed to provide scientific ideas for the efficient construction and sustainable development of aquaponics complex system.

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    Layout and Implementation Effect Analysis of the “13 th Five-Year” National Key Research and Development Program’s “Forestry Resource Cultivation and Efficient Utilization Technology Innovation”
    Wen DONG, Ming CAI, Pan HU, Miao LU, Zhenzhong WANG, Kangtai SUN, Yufei LI, Bingyou LU, Hui ZHANG, Xiaoming DENG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0767
    Abstract310)   HTML8)    PDF (834KB)(132)       Save

    The reform of the “13th Five-Year” National Science and Technology Plan established a new framework for national key research and development programs. The inclusion of the “Forestry Resource Cultivation and Efficient Utilization Technology Innovation” aimed to support technological innovation in forestry. This initiative was strategically designed to reveal mechanisms for regulating forestry resource cultivation and efficient utilization, enhance the unit productivity of major artificial forests, and improve resource utilization efficiency. The approach involved organizing basic research, key technology research, and technology integration demonstrations through an “innovation chain layout and integrated implementation of the industrial chain”. By the end of 2022, the program had concluded successfully and completed the comprehensive performance evaluation. This study, focusing the "Forestry Resource Cultivation and Efficient Utilization Technology Innovation" of the “13th Five-Year” National Science and Technology Plan, summarized and analyzed the background, project initiation, and implementation effectiveness, which would serve as a valuable reference for the future allocation, organization and management of forestry science and technology resources.

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    Development Status and Prospects of Rice Industry in Heilongjiang Province
    Yingnan GU, Xin LIU, Jingyuan WANG, Xinyu DUAN, Ying HUANG, Qingjuan LIN, Yanxia LIU, Hongwen BI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (12): 17-25.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1005
    Abstract265)   HTML14)    PDF (1755KB)(235)       Save

    In recent years, the rice industry in Heilongjiang province has developed well in planting, production and marketing, but there are still some problems such as quality degradation and low efficiency of processing enterprises. In order to promote the development of high-quality rice industry in Heilongjiang province, and improve productivity and efficiency,based on the statistical yearbook data of Heilongjiang province, field survey information and literature data, this paper analyzed the change characteristics of rice variety breeding, production and planting, quality, processing and sales of japonica rice in Heilongjiang province from 2016 to 2021, put forward suggestions to accelerate the development of rice industry in Heilongjiang province, including the construction of research and innovation center of seed industry, the construction of green ecological demonstration area and the strengthening of rice processing industry, which provided a variety of feasible ideas for the development of rice industry in Heilongjiang province.

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    Organ Segmentation and Phenotypic Analysis of Soybean Plants Based on Three-dimensional Point Clouds
    Yitong XIAO, Shuai LIU, Chenlian HOU, Qi LIU, Fuzhong LI, Wuping ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 115-125.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0861
    Abstract264)   HTML8)    PDF (3043KB)(148)       Save

    In order to solve the problem of high-throughput phenotypic measurements caused by clustering and mutual shading of leaves of multi-branched crops such as soybean, a method of organ segmentation and phenotypic parameter measurement based on three-dimensional(3D)point clouds of the plant was proposed. Firstly, multi-view images of soybean plants were collected at the branching stage and used 3D reconstruction technology to obtain dense point clouds of plants, filtered point cloud noise and restored the actual scale. Further, the difference of normals algorithm, the improved regional growth algorithm and the point clouds curvature feature were used to segment the organs of the plant. Finally, the leaf area, leaf width, leaf length, leaf inclination angle and stem diameter were extracted by using the oriented bounding box, improved triangulation and the nearest neighbor algorithm. The results showed that the average segmentation rate of canopy leaf point clouds after organ segmentation was 84.24%, and the segmentation rate of single leaf point clouds was higher than 95.29%, and the measured values of phenotypic parameters had strong correlation with the manually measured values. The coefficients of determination of leaf area, leaf width, leaf length, leaf inclination and stem diameter measurements and manual measurements were 0.987 9, 0.961 3, 0.962 6, 0.931 1 and 0.963 4, respectively, with root mean square errors of 0.541 7 cm2, 0.141 2 cm, 0.175 5 cm, 3.279 6° and 0.047 5 cm. The proposed method had a good segmentation effect on plants with leaves adhering to each other and provided an effective solution for organ segmentation and phenotypic parameter measurement of multi-branched crops.

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    Scientific and Technological Innovation of Soybean Seed Industry in China:Current Situation and Strategy
    Wenyue WANG, Zhipeng YAO, Yang YU, Yiqiang GE
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (3): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2024.0016
    Abstract255)   HTML26)    PDF (3619KB)(219)       Save

    China is a major soybean consumer and importer. Promoting the revitalization of the soybean industry and strengthening the technological innovation of the soybean seed industry have great significances for ensuring China’s food and safety. Based on the data of China’s soybean planting area, export, and import volume since 2016 and relevant research advances, this paper analyzed the situation challenges faced by China’s soybean industry, such as large rigid demand and long-term dependence on imports, low average yield level and limited planting area, and potential risks faced by imports that would exist for a long time and are not easy to share. This paper briefly described the scientific and technological innovation results of China’s soybean seed industry during the “13th Five-Year” Plan period, and systematically analyzed the problems faced by the scientific and technological innovation of China’s soybean seed industry, such as low research level of germplasm resources, insufficient original scientific and technological innovation ability, imperfect commercial breeding system, lagging intellectual property protection system. It also put forward countermeasures and suggestions to promote the scientific and technological innovation and development of China’s soybean seed industry, in order to promote China’s soybean seed industry technology self-reliance development.

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    Application Status and Development Trend of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Agricultural Engineering
    Yao XIAO, Mingliang WU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0300
    Abstract250)   HTML22)    PDF (2130KB)(307)       Save

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a method for systematic analysis based on computer numerical calculation and image display. It is often used to analyze the flow mechanisms of gas-solid and gas-liquid two-phase flow in agricultural equipment. It is a new method for digital design of agricultural equipment, which has good application prospects. The commonly used calculation models of CFD in simulating agricultural materials and its application in agricultural equipment were summarized.Combined with the application of agricultural engineering, the future development trend of CFD was proposed on how to adapt to the future development needs of agricultural engineering. The results indicated that, due to the complex types of operation objects and easy damage of agricultural equipment, it was necessary to fully consider the physical characteristics of the operation objects and the relationship among components. The multidisciplinary coupling analysis, fine modeling and real-time prediction of high fidelity simulation would be the future development trend of CFD.

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    Genome-wide Identification and Bioinformatics Analysis of GRAS Gene Family in Maize
    Zhanqing WU, Wei CHEN, Zhan ZHAO, Hailiang XU, Haoyuan LI, Xingxing PENG, Dongxu CHEN, Mingyue ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (3): 15-25.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0551
    Abstract242)   HTML14)    PDF (5358KB)(153)       Save

    GRAS gene family is a kind of transcription factor widely distributed in plants, which plays an important role in plant growth and development, biological and abiotic stress, light signal, hormone signal response and other processes. The physicochemical properties, chromosome localization, phylogeny and cis-acting elements of GRAS gene family in maize were analyzed. The results showed that a total of 49 ZmGRAS genes were identified in the whole genome of maize, which were unevenly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10, and the physicochemical properties of the encoded proteins were very different, which might play a role in different microenvironments. Phylogenetic analysis classified GRAS proteins into 8 subfamilies, which might play important roles in regulating growth and development and stress response. The promoter regions of GRAS genes in maize contained variety of cis-acting elements such as hormone response, light response and stress response, which might be involved in important response such as hormone and stress. Collinear analysis showed that genes with collinear relationships might be the result of replication of chromosome segments, and belonged to the same subfamily with similar structure and function. The identification and analysis of GRAS gene family in maize provided the basis for further research on the function of GRAS genes and their response mechanisms to stress in maize.

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    Research and Application of Directed Micro -Ecology in Soybean -Nodulating Rhizobia
    Yi CAO, Wenjing CUI, Ruiqiang MA
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (4): 215-224.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0758
    Abstract226)   HTML0)    PDF (2052KB)(38)       Save

    China has abundant soybean-nodulating rhizobia germplasm resources, but its application progress is slow, which inoculation area is only 1%~3% of the total soybean planting area in the country. The main reason for the situation is that rhizobia cannot produce spores and have poor stress resistance, resulting in short product shelf life and unstable application effects. In order to diversify, functionalize and differentiate rhizobia products and improve product activity and application effects, a directed micro-ecology (DME) system was used to optimize the culture and successfully achieved the directing cultivation as well as application evaluation of rhizobia and bacillus strains. The optimal culture medium for rhizobia (25.5 mL·L-1 molasses solution, 15.2 g·L-1 yeast extract, pH 6.98) was obtained through single-factor experiment of culture medium and response surface method. The medium formulation was applied in DME incubator at proper ventilation volume and incubation time, which made 1 strain of rhizobia (100 L·min-1, 20 h) and 3 strains of bacillus (150 L·min-1, 14 h) to achieve more than 50-folds amplification of microbial quantities to reach (20~50)×108 CFU·mL-1, and the rate of miscellaneous microorganism contamination was controlled below 5%. Pot experiments showed that the treatments of DME incubating strains were significantly better than the similar treatments of conventional cultured strains in the laboratory, which indicated that the DME incubator could better realize the application performances of functional microorganisms. The combination of rhizobia and bacillus could assist the rhizobia to better deliver its symbiotic function, which was specifically reflected in the increased number of nodules and chlorophyll content in the seedling stage, and the final yield was increased by nearly 20%, compared with single rhizobia strain. The DME system proposed in this study through the control of directed nutrition and growth strategies, allowed the target functional microorganisms to reach application-level yield and purity in a microecological environment containing a variety of microorganisms, achieving the same application performance as pure culture microbial product. It had important significance and application value to promote the industrialization of rhizobia, accelerating the promotion and application of functional strains.

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    Research Progress on Mechanism of Brassinosteroids Regulating Plant Salt Tolerance
    Chen CHEN, Dawei CHENG, Lan LI, Hong GU, Xizhi GUO, Ming LI, Jinyong CHEN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (2): 1-12.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0923
    Abstract224)   HTML10)    PDF (3066KB)(141)       Save

    Brassinosteroid(BR), as a novel and highly efficient plant hormone, is widely involved in various physiological processes of plants and has important roles in alleviating abiotic stresses. This article elaborated the biological functions of BR treatment in alleviating salt stress, and summarized the BR signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and several horticultural plants. By introducing the salt tolerance mechanism of BR, it further analyzed the response signal transduction pathways when the plants subjected to salt stress, which provided a theoretical basis for the application of BR in improving salt tolerance in plants.

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    Countermeasures and Suggestions for Promoting the Industrialization of China’s Biological Breeding Technology
    Jingli GUO, Yuhong ZHANG, Caijiao SHENG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (12): 1-5.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0608
    Abstract202)   HTML13)    PDF (412KB)(190)       Save

    Compared with traditional breeding technology, modern biological breeding technology has many advantages, such as high efficiency, good precision and short R&D cycle. It has become the research focus in the global seed industry. This article summarized the current development status of biological breeding industrialization in China, and proposed promotion strategies and suggestions based on the problems existing in the industrialization development. In China, modern biological breeding technologies represented by transgenic, gene editing, and genomic selection technologies are progressing in parallel with developed countries, and pilot projects for the industrialization of biological breeding have been initiated. Positive progress has been made in the industrialization of biological breeding in China, with the biological breeding industry becoming an important driver of rural economic development, the establishment of a preliminary technological innovation system across the entire industry chain, and the formation of a basic industrial policy and regulatory system. However, there are still prominent issues that need to be addressed, such as a high dependence on foreign R&D equipment in biological breeding, constraints on key core technologies, weak market competitiveness, and a lag in the supporting system for intellectual property rights in industrial applications of biological breeding. It is urgent to strengthen the construction of the biological breeding organization system, the technology research and development system, the scientific and technological equipment system, and the market supervision system. Emphasis should be placed on cultivating large multinational market entities to provide support for the orderly development of China’s industrialization of biological breeding.

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    Application of Multiplex PCR on Detection of Plant Pathogens
    Zijian CAO, Yanhong QIU, Shuang WANG, Juan ZHAO, Suyue ZHENG, Guanghang QIAO, Wentao QIN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 216-224.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0317
    Abstract190)   HTML9)    PDF (841KB)(49)       Save

    There are various plant pathogens, and climate change and globalization have intensified the spread of pathogens. Rapid and reliable diagnostic techniques for plant pathogens play important roles for the epidemic warning and scientific prevention of the disease. With the development of technology, multiplex PCR technology with the advantages of high accuracy and efficiency is widely used in many fields of the life sciences. The principle of this technical was briefly introduced, and the applications of multiplex PCR in the detection of plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes were also reviewed. The existing problems and solutions of this technology were analyzed, and the development of this technology in the future was finally prospected.

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    Development Strategy on Agricultural Microbial Industry in China
    Jingli GUO, Dlxat Nilufar, Daqing WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 1-7.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0682
    Abstract190)   HTML10)    PDF (510KB)(239)       Save

    The international market share of the agricultural microbial industry is increasing, making the development of germplasm resources, key technology research, safety monitoring and protection gradually become a battlefield in the field of agricultural microbial industry. It was found that the development of China's agricultural microbial industry still had limitations such as weak ability to tap and utilize resources, little breakthrough in key core technologies, weak international competitiveness of industrial development, and imperfect safety prevention and control system. In order to ensure national food security, improve the market share of biological agriculture economy, achieve green and sustainable development of agriculture, and consolidate the foundation of agricultural power. The government should accelerate the construction of the national agricultural microbial germplasm bank, strengthen the breakthrough of the key core technologies of agricultural microbial industry, optimize the development layout of agricultural microbial industry, increase support for agricultural microbial enterprises, improve the safety protection and monitoring system of agricultural microbial industry, and comprehensively enhance the international market share and international competitiveness of China's agricultural microbial industry.

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    Effects of Biochar Application on Soil pH: A Meta-Analysis
    Jing GAO, Minggang XU, Ran LI, Zejiang CAI, Nan SUN, Qiang ZHANG, Lei ZHENG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (9): 186-196.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0111
    Abstract179)   HTML14)    PDF (2305KB)(84)       Save

    In order to quantify the effect of biochar application on soil pH and provide theoretical basis for biochar application in soil improvement and fertility cultivation, based on the electronic databases CNKI, Wanfang and Web of Science, 413 biochar on soil pH case studies based on the keywords “Biochar”, “Biochar”, “soil pH” and “soil pH” were collected from 59 published literatures. Meta-analysis was implied to quantify the effect degree of soil conditions, biochar characteristics and biochar application amount on soil pH. The results showed that, compared with no biochar application, biochar application could significantly increase soil pH by 8.70%. In the strongly acidic soil (4.5<pH≤5.5) and extremely acidic soil (pH≤4.5), the increase rate were the highest, which were 15.17% and 9.68%, respectively. Different biochar could significantly increase soil pH, and showed the trend as straw biochar (10.04%) > shell residue biochar (7.02%) > wood biochar (6.61%). The biochar prepared at ≤400 ℃ had the best promotion effect of 15.26% under different pyrolysis temperatures, while, the increasing effect decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, such as the pyrolysis temperature was between 400~700 ℃. The increasing effect was higher in 3 months, then the increase gradually slowed down.These results indicated that in strongly acidic soil (4.5<pH≤5.5), straw pyrolysis biochar at low temperature (≤400 ℃) was preferred to be applied, which could better improve soil pH and provide scientific basis for the promotion and application of biochar in the future.

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    Calibration of Discrete Element Parameter of Rice Stubble Straw Based on EDEM
    Zitao MA, Zhihao ZHAO, Wei QUAN, Fanggang SHI, Chen GAO, Mingliang WU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 103-113.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1047
    Abstract174)   HTML10)    PDF (2041KB)(186)       Save

    In order to improve the accuracy of the parameters during the process of rice straw shredding and returning to the field in discrete element simulation, the stubble straw in the field after rice harvest were taken as the research object, and the contact parameters between straw and steel, straw and straw were measured through the slope test.Then based on simulation model and through the stacking angle and shear test, the bonding radius between straw model particles, tangential critical stress, normal critical stress, coefficient of restitution, static friction coefficient and dynamic friction coefficient were taken as the test factors, taking the shear resistance and radial stacking angle of straw as evaluation indicators, a multi-objective optimization simulation calibration experiment were conducted using the Box-Behnken experimental scheme.The results showed that the bonding radius between straw particles was 1.06 mm, and the normal critical stress of straw was 4.77×1010 Pa, tangential critical stress was 4.67×106 Pa, the collision restitution coefficient between straw and straw was 0.21, the static Friction coefficient was 0.19, and the rolling friction coefficient was 0.09. The results of the simulation test results under the optimal parameter combination conditions and the physical test showed that the relative errors of the shear resistance and radial stacking angle of straw in the simulation test and physical test were 1.7% and 2.8%, respectively. This study could provide reference for the discrete element simulation analysis between straw and straw, as well as between straw and agricultural machinery.

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    Application of Image Recognition Technology in the Field of Chicken Breeding
    Ning ZHAO, Xing LI, Yong JIANG, Zhixiu WANG, Yulin BI, Guohong CHEN, Hao BAI, Guobin CHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (9): 13-22.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0257
    Abstract171)   HTML17)    PDF (558KB)(185)       Save

    With the development of society and the continuous progress of science and technology, image recognition technology has developed rapidly. As a non-contact and non-destructive information monitoring technology, image recognition technology has been widely used in the field of chicken breeding, which has brought new impetus to the development of modern chicken industry. This paper briefly summarized the image recognition technology, then focused on the application of image recognition technology in chicken behavior recognition, body weight estimation, health monitoring and product classification, and finally summarized the problems and development prospects of image recognition technology in the field of chicken breeding, which was conducive to the efficient, sustainable and healthy development of image recognition technology in the future chicken industry, accelerated the comprehensive combination of artificial intelligence and chicken breeding industry, and provided technical reference basis for promoting the prosperity and development of modern animal husbandry in China.

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    Expressions of SWEET Genes During Pod and Seed Developments and Under Different Stress Conditions in Soybean
    Boyang KE, Wenlong LI, Caiying ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 33-52.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1087
    Abstract164)   HTML4)    PDF (2819KB)(209)       Save

    Sugars are always transported to the other organs via sugar transporters to play their important functions in plants. SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) is a kind of sugar transporters which plays important function in plant growth and development as well as in resistance or tolerance to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. To analyze the expressions of SWEET genes during pod and seed developments and under different stress conditions in soybean, the SWEET genes were firstly analyzed based on the newly published cultivated and wild soybean genomes in the present study. Subsequently, the gene expressions were evaluated during pod and seed developments, as well as in resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and tolerance to low phosphorus. The results showed that 48 SWEET genes were identified in the cultivated soybean genome (Wm82a4v1), which encoded protein with length 174~354 amino acids and located on 15 chromosomes. Meanwhile, 51 SWEET genes were identified in the wild soybean genome (W05), which encoded length of 84~392 amino acids and located on 16 chromosomes. The phylogenetic tree of SWEET genes in cultivated and wild soybeans showed that they were clustered into 3 sub-groups. Moreover, 16 SWEET genes were expressed in soybean pods with the expressions of Glyma.06G122200Glyma.14G159900 and Glyma.14G160100 etc. increased during the pod development process. 12 SWEET genes were expressed in soybean seeds, and the expressions of Glyma.08G025100Glyma.13G041300 and Glyma.14G120300 were increased during the seed development, suggesting their important roles for soybean seed development. The SWEET genes showed different expressions after the inoculation of SMV, and the expressions of Glyma.08G009900 and Glyma.13G264400 were induced in leaves of resistant variety, while had no change in the sensitive variety, implying that they might involve in SMV resistance. The expressions of Glyma.04G198400Glyma.14G160100 and Glyma.15G211800 were induced in soybean roots after low phosphorus treatment, indicating their important functions in the tolerance to low phosphorus stress. In addition, the single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)analysis of SWEET genes showed that 43 genes contained 220 nonsynonymous SNPs with 103 located in the conserved domains of encoding proteins. Thus, above results provided candidate genes for molecular breeding of soybean pod and seed yield and diverse stress resistances.

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    Effects of Manure Application on Soybean Yield and Soil Nutrients in China
    Chenyang ZHANG, Minggang XU, Fei WANG, Ran LI, Nan SUN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 148-156.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0077
    Abstract158)   HTML4)    PDF (1441KB)(114)       Save

    Application of manure can increase soybean yield and soil fertility. There are significant differences in soybean yield and soil fertility in China due to the influence of region, application rate of manure, type of manure etc. However, the reasons for these differences are still not clear. In order to find out the effect of manure fertilizer application on soybean yield and soil fertility in different regions and management measures in China, and the main factors of yield increase effect, this study collected data on a national scale for integrated analysis. According to the searching criteria, 37 literatures including 119 groups of data on the effect of manure application on soybean yield and 11 literatures including 148 groups of data on the effects of manure application on soil nutrients were obtained. The enhanced boosted regression tree (BRT) model was used to quantify the importance of climate factors, soil properties and manure application measures on soybean yield increase. The average soybean yield increased by 12.9% after application of manure in different regions, with the highest yield in south China (18.7%) and followed by North China (14.8%), Northwest China (13.6%) and Northeast China (12.0%). When the application rate of manure was more than 5 000 kg·hm-2, the increase of soybean yield was 18.5%. Soybean yield increased by 24.9% after the application of cow manure, followed by the application of pig manure (17.6%), commercial manure (15.3%), chicken manure (12.7%) and manure (8.8%). The average soybean yield was 2 224 kg·hm-2 with no fertilizer, whereas it increased by 20.4% to the amount 2 518 kg·hm-2 with applying manure alone. The average soybean yield was 2 259 kg·hm-2 under the application of chemical fertilizer, whereas it increased by 9.1% to the amount 2 558 kg·hm-2 under the combined application of manure and chemical fertilizer. Manure application significantly increased soil available P (43.5%), total P (13.3%) and organic matter (11.0%), but had no significant effect on soil available K (9.4%), alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen (3.4%), pH (2.1%) and total K (1.2%). Based on the BRT results, the BRT model explained 52.83% of soybean yield differences in China. Among them, the application rate of manure had the greatest impact on soybean yield, accounting for 47.0% of the variation, followed by soil properties (41.0%) and climate factors (12.0%). In general, the application of manure (including the single application of manure and combined application of manure and chemical fertilizer) could significantly increase soybean yield, with the largest increase in South China and with the highest increasing production benefit under the application of cow manure. Soybean yield was mostly affected by the application rate of manure. Additionally, the available P, total P and organic matter contents in soybean soil significantly increased under the application of manure.

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    Progress of Research on the Effect of Sulfur on Cadmium Uptake and Accumulation by Plants and Its Mechanism
    Liying YANG, Mengya TAI, Yeyu ZHAI, Zicheng XU, Wuxing HUANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 10-21.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0580
    Abstract151)   HTML5)    PDF (1321KB)(204)       Save

    Cadmium is classified as a hazardous substance of global significance by the United Nations Environment Programme, and soil cadmium pollution seriously threatens plant growth and endangers human health. Exogenous sulfur affects the uptake and accumulation of cadmium by plants, but the effect of different forms and content of sulfur on the uptake and accumulation of cadmium by different plants varies greatly. Therefore, the effects of different forms and content of sulfur on the uptake and accumulation of cadmium by crops (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Brassica chinensis, Amaranshus mangostanus, Nicotiana tabacum) and Cd-hyperaccumulation plants (Sedum plumbizincicola, Solanum nigrum) were reviewed. Subsequently, the possible mechanisms of action were summarized in terms of the effectiveness of soil Cd (sulfur affects soil pH and cadmium adsorption), the uptake of Cd by plant roots (sulfur affects the transcription levels of metal transporters, and the formation of root hair and iron plaque) and the distribution and accumulation of Cd in plants (sulfur affects root cell wall adsorption and vacuolar compartment). Finally, strategies for sulfur application to reduce crops and increase hyperaccumulation plants Cd uptake and accumulation were explored. The result provided a theoretical basis for improving crop safety and remediating soil cadmium contamination.

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    Identification of Co-expression Genes Related to Cold Stress in Foxtail Millet by WGCNA
    Hui ZHANG, Yueyue WANG, Bo ZHAO, Liling ZHANG, Qianru QIE, Yuanhuai HAN, Xukai LI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (10): 22-34.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0108
    Abstract149)   HTML9)    PDF (7691KB)(125)       Save

    It is of great practical significance to study the molecular basis of plant response to low temperature stress and breed new varieties of cold-tolerant for ensuring food security. However, the study is relatively scarce about cold resistance of foxtail millet (Setaria italica). To further explore the molecular mechanism of millet responsing to low temperature stress at seedling, 33 RNA-Seq data of foxtail millet at different development stages and different cold stress times were used. Gene expression matrix was constructed using 32 017 highly expressed genes. WGCNA package of R software was used to construct a co-expression network, which was further divided into 44 modules. The genes related to cold stress of foxtail millet were existed in several modules. Here, 3 modules with most cold stress genes were selected for GO enrichment analysis to annotate the function of target genes, and it was found that most candidate genes were related to abiotic stress responses. Above results provided new ideas for stress resistance of foxtail millet, and the key genes of cold stress provided effective resources for breeding the new variety of cold tolerance in foxtail millet.

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    Theme Evolution of Agricultural Genomics in Recent Years
    Qian DING, Lei WU, Xuefu ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (10): 1-11.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0562
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    Agricultural genomics has developed rapidly with a significant increase in information and data. This article summarized the development process of global agricultural genomics in recent years from the perspective of research topic intensity, change paths and research progress. The search strategy used agricultural genome keywords, which were searched from January 2001 to December 2021. Finally, the SCI and SSCI paper datasets were constructed in the Web of Science database, and the topic intensity index system was used to measure the attention and research heat of each cluster. In recent years, the global agricultural genome had achieved remarkable results, transitioning from fundamental exploration to targeted breakthroughs in agricultural applications, and the similarity of research directions increased gradually. In the future, global research hotspots in agricultural genomics would shift towards more multidimensional and high-precision research such as correlation, diversity, and accuracy. Breakthroughs in complete genome, complex genome, and pan genome research and technology, as well as the development of gene chips, those still faced challenges. The results of this article had significant implications for achieving data-based scientific decision-making and technological innovation.

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    Trichoderma Affects Crop Growth and Soil Ecological Environment
    Xin ZHAO, Yifei WANG, Jiajia WANG, Peiyao WANG, Guiduan WANG, Lixia ZHU, Lili LI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 166-172.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0456
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    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi and is widely used in agriculture as biofungicides, which can be used to control a variety of plant diseases. As is known, Trichoderma can not only well control crop diseases, but also improve soil physical-chemical properties and enhance soil productivity. However, its control effects on crop growth and soil ecological environment are not clear. Therefore, this work summarized the effects of Trichoderma on disease resistance, yield and growth of crops, the effects of Trichoderma on soil ecological environment were also reviewed from the perspective of soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Additionally, this paper pointed out the shortcomings of the existing research on the impact of Trichoderma on crops and soil properties, and stressed corresponding prospects to promote crop growth and improve soil fertility in the future. This review could provide a theoretical basis for the in-depth promotion and application of Trichoderma in agricultural production.

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    Development and Verification of Prediction Model for Grape Downy Mildew Based on Machine Learning
    Fengxia BIAN, Kaige LIU, Xinmin RONG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (8): 126-137.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0866
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    Grape downy mildew is one of the major diseases on grapes, which can occur from seedling to fruit maturity, often causing destructive losses in rainy years. To accurately predict the occurrence of grape downy mildew and minimize the hazards of grape downy mildew, based on the agrometeorological data and disease occurrence data during grape growth in 2020, a prediction model for the occurrence of grape downy mildew was developed by 4 machine learning algorithms (binary logistic regression, support vector machine, decision tree and K-nearest neighbors), and the models were verified using the data in 2021. The results showed that the decision tree model had the best evaluation indicators in the disease prediction model, which the accuracy was 94%, and the precision, recall and F1-score was 91%, 90% and 91%, respectively. The decision tree model’s performance was still better than the other models using validation data. Therefore, the decision tree model could be further used to develop early warning systems for grape downy mildew, which should provide technical support and decision-making guidance for controlling it in production.

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    Current Situation and High Quality Development Countermeasures of Watermelon and Muskmelon Industry in Beijing
    Lin ZHANG, Yantao YANG, Lili SONG, Shiping MAO
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 20-27.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0313
    Abstract142)   HTML8)    PDF (1823KB)(91)       Save

    As one of the characteristic crop industries in Beijing, the high-quality development of watermelon is important for promoting the revitalization of rural industries, achieving wealth and income increase. In order to conduct a comprehensive and in-depth study of the current development status of the entire chain of Beijing’s watermelon industry, the systematic analysis has been conducted from the aspects of production scale, variety structure, facility cultivation, green development, brand construction, circulation mode, market price, etc. In addition, problems such as increasing external risk factors, urgent breakthroughs in core technologies, imbalance in labor supply and demand, difficulty in implementing supporting policies, and incomplete development of industrial chains was analyzed. The following countermeasures and suggestions was proposed: strengthening technology investment support, comprehensively attracting rural talents, promoting land transfer and moderate scale operation, promoting the integration and improvement of the “three chains”, and improving precise support policies for the entire chain, in order to promote the upgrading and high-quality development of the Beijing watermelon industry throughout the entire chain.

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    Effect of Different CO 2 Contents on Temperature Distribution in Potato Storage Room
    Qi ZHEN, Guangze YAN, Na TA, Zhiyong ZHAO, Huimin YU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 154-165.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0349
    Abstract133)   HTML9)    PDF (3970KB)(36)       Save

    Within the context of storing potatoes in traditional semi-underground storage room, the greenhouse effect is caused by the increase of CO2 content. In order to clarify the distribution law of the temperature in the storage room due to the change of CO2 content caused by potato respiration, taking the typical semi-underground potato storage room in western China as the research carrier, with the help of computational fluid dynamics method, the porous media model, k-ε turbulence model, and internal heat source model were used to construct a three dimensional numerical solution model of the heat and mass exchange with gas flow between the potato pile and the environment in the storage room. To ensure the accuracy of numerical simulation results, the numerical method and grid independence were verified. The results showed that through a comparative experiment monitoring the temperature at specific locations of potato stacks, it was found that the average relative error between experimental values and simulated values was 8.26%, with a maximum relative error of 9.77%, further confirming the reliability of the numerical heat transfer model for the storage room and the equivalent thermal model for potato stacks. Based on the environmental factor data inside and outside the storage room on a certain day in January 2022, when the CO2 content was 0.15%, the indoor temperature distribution decreased layer by layer along the potato pile, and the CO2 vent made a high temperature zone appear behind the pile. When the CO2 content increased from 0.00% to 0.30%, the average indoor temperature increased from 1.34 to 1.36 ℃, and the average temperature of the potato pile increased from 1.93 to 1.94 ℃. Comparing the indoor temperature distribution under the carbon dioxide content of 0.00%, 0.15% and 0.30% components, the overall temperature in the storage room was effectively increased with the increase of the CO2 content in the storage room. The results of this paper had important reference value for the establishment of mathematical models of semi-underground storage rooms and the selection of suitable carbon dioxide concentration control devices.

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    Study on Risk Assessment of China’s Pelagic Fisheries Industry Under Global Climate Change
    Wei ZHAO, Jing HE
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (10): 12-21.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0280
    Abstract132)   HTML5)    PDF (1178KB)(51)       Save

    To explore the current risk status of China’s pelagic fishery industry in the context of current global climate change and assess the risk level of the industry, the data related to China’s pelagic fishery industry and ocean climate change data from 2009 to 2021 were analyzed. The risk assessment index system was constructed based on the pressure-state-response(PSR) model framework, and the risk index model was applied to determine the level of pressure, state and response risk of China’s pelagic fisheries. The risk assessment results showed that the total risk index of the pelagic fishery from 2009 to 2021 showed a fluctuating upward trend due to the influence of ocean climate changes and ocean extreme disasters. The changing trend of the pressure risk index was generally similar to the change of the total risk index, indicating that climate change factors occupied a great proportion in affecting the risk of the pelagic fishery industry. The overall increasing trend of the state risk index indicated that the sensitivity of China’s pelagic fisheries to cope with climate change pressure had become greater. The overall trend of fluctuating increase in the response risk index indicated that the adaptive capacity and recovery ability of China’s pelagic fisheries themselves were gradually strengthening. Based on this, countermeasures were proposed from both external climatic factors and internal socio-economic factors, which could help enhance the risk prevention capability of China’s pelagic fisheries and provide a reference for achieving high-quality development of China’s pelagic fisheries.

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    Function and Characteristic Analysis of Haloxylon ammodendron NAC Transcription Factor HaNAC38
    Guangke LUO, Rongbo MU, Bing XUE, Hua ZHANG, Yanping REN, Hao MA
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (10): 65-73.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0266
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    In order to study the function of HaNAC38, a drought-related NAC transcription factor obtained from Haloxylon ammodendron drought transcriptomes, the homozygous lines of Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing HaNAC38 gene were used as the materials, and the differences of growth and physiological indices were compared between plant of overexpressing HaNAC38 gene and wild type. The binding activity of HaNAC38 transcription factor and DNA core sequence was verified by yeast single hybridization technique. The results showed, under natural drought and simulated salt stress, the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing HaNAC38 gene was significantly better than that of the wild type. The seed germination rate and the proline content and catalase activity in leaf of plant overexpressing HaNAC38 gene were significantly higher than those of wild type, while the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide were significantly lower than those of wild type. It showed that HaNAC38 significantly enhanced the tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought and salt stress. The yeast single hybridization indicated that the DNA core sequence of HaNAC38 transcription factor could bind TTGCGT core sequence specifically in yeast and activate the expression of downstream reporter gene. The above results laid a foundation for clarifying the function and regulatory network of haloxylon ammodendrite HaNAC38 transcription factor.

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    Improvement of Heterologous Protein Secretion and Folding Pathways of Pichia pastoris
    Zequn LU, Ning LIU, Honglian ZHANG, Yuan WANG, Huoqing HUANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (1): 18-27.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0160
    Abstract128)   HTML8)    PDF (519KB)(160)       Save

    Most of the active proteins and industrial enzymes commonly used in industry, agriculture and medicine are obtained through heterologous expression systems. Pichia pastoris is one of the excellent hosts for expressing heterologous proteins. This expression system has the advantages including good genetic stability, high protein expression and secretory level, post-translational modification system, and low cost etc. However, excessive aggregation of heterologous proteins usually leads to incorrect fold and ineffective secretion of the target proteins, thus decling protein expression level. This paper reviewed the progress in the study on exogenous protein expression in Pichia pastoris by engineering the secretion and folding pathways such as signal peptide optimization, chaperone optimization and fusion protein expression.

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    Amino Acid Content Analysis of Different Fresh Corn Varieties at Suitable Harvest Time
    Baishan LU, Hui DONG, Jiuran ZHAO, Li XU, Yanli FAN, Yaxing SHI, Ronghuan WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 132-142.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0680
    Abstract127)   HTML4)    PDF (544KB)(147)       Save

    The amino acid content of 26 different fresh corn varieties was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the similarity between different types of fresh corn and WHO/FAO standard amino acid model value was compared, and the amino acid content was analyzed by amino acid ratio coefficient method. The results showed that,the total amino acid content of the tested fresh corn varieties ranged from 6.85 to 16.66 mg·g-1, and Jingketian 533 (16.66 mg·g-1), Jingkenuo 623 (12.01 mg·g-1) and Nongkenuo 336 (14.44 mg·g-1) was higher than other varieties of sweet, waxy, sweet+waxy type, respectively. Essential amino acids accounted for 10.38%~22.43%, and Jingketian 816 (17.39%), Jingkenuo 656 (22.43%) and Nongkeyu 368 (18.16%) was higher than other varieties of sweet, waxy, sweet+waxy type, respectively. Analysis of flavor amino acids showed the content of fresh and sweet amino acids of Jingketian 533 and Nongkenuo 336 were higher than that of other varieties. The content of methionine+cysteine was higher than that of WHO/FAO standard mode, while the content of other amino acids were lower than the standard amino acid model value, belonging to the relative lack of amino acids. There were 6 varieties with amino acid ratio coefficient score (SRC) more than 50, including sweet corn varieties Jingketian 183 (58.17), Jingketian 608 (57.79), Jingketian 533 (53.32) and Jingketian 816 (53.03), sweet+waxy corn varieties Nongkeyu 368(51.05) and Nongkenuo 336 (50.63), indicating that their protein nutritional value was balanced and easy to be absorbed and utilized by the human body.

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    Maize Root Image Segmentation Based on CP-DeepLabv3+
    Yafeng ZHAO, Mengxue WANG, Deshuai WANG, Dongdong WANG, Yuan LI, Junfeng HU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (3): 110-116.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0996
    Abstract126)   HTML14)    PDF (2731KB)(66)       Save

    Minirhizotron technique can directly monitor the dynamic growth and development of plant roots and be used to obtain clear root images. However, because of the complex soil environment, uneven particle size and large number of fine roots, it easily causes discontinuity of the divided roots and mistakes the soil background as the root. To solve the above problems, the CP-DeepLabv3+ algorithm was proposed to segment image. The coordinate attention mechanism (CA) was introduced to effectively segment the target location information and made the edge of the target more continuous. Strip pooling (SP) branch was added to ASPP feature extraction module to avoid unnecessary connections between distant locations and improve the accuracy of image segmentation. CP-DeepLabv3+ algorithm was applied to test maize root dataset. The results showed that the mean intersection-over-union (MIoU) value was 82.95%, the mean pixel accuracy (MPA) value was 92.47%, which was 3.69% and 4.44% higher than the original DeepLabv3+ model, respectively. This algorithm could effectively segment maize root and has practical significance for feature extraction.

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    Physiological and Chemical Characteristics and Transcriptome Analysis of Different Type of Wheat Seedlings Under Salt Stress
    Shuang LI, Aiying WANG, Zhen JIAO, Qing CHI, Hao SUN, Tao JIAO
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (2): 20-32.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0679
    Abstract126)   HTML6)    PDF (3835KB)(119)       Save

    To explore the response difference of different types of wheat to salt stress, the leaves of ‘Bainong 889’ and ‘Chinese spring’ seedlings were subjected in 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl solution. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat seedling under salt stress were analyzed, and the differences of gene expression and the occurrence of variable shearing events were investigated based on transcriptomics data. The results showed that, under salt stress, the leaves of ‘Bainong 889’ had less chlorosis than ‘Chinese spring’; the leaves of ‘Chinese spring’ stained by Evans blue were greater and the relative activity of cells was significantly reduced. In addition, ‘Chinese spring’ wheat seedlings significantly wilted under salt stress, while ‘Bainong 889’ was no significant difference compared with control in the morphology. The relative electrolyte leakage rates of both cultivars under salt stress were higher than the control, and that of ‘Chinese spring’ seedlings was the highest. Under salt stress, the concents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll in leaves of both ‘Bainong 889’ and ‘Chinese spring’ seedlings decreased, and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of ‘Chinese spring’ seedlings were significantly inhibited, while those of ‘Bainong 889’ were similar to the control. Transcriptome sequencing results showed that 2 299 differentially expressed genes were up-regulated and 2 527 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated in ‘Bainong 889’ than ‘Chinese spring’. GO (gene ontology) enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested that functions related to chloroplast, photosynthesis and plasma membrane were significantly enriched. KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) enrichment analysis showed that pathways related to plant hormone signal transduction and plant secondary metabolites were significantly enriched. The analysis of variable shear events in transcriptome data showed that there were more variable shear events in ‘Chinese spring’ under salt stress, which were mainly concentrated in RNA transport and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, wheat could responded to salt stress by regulating the expression of genes related to chlorophyll, plasma membrane, secondary metabolites and photosynthesis. The occurrence of variable shear events also indicated that two types of varieties regulated the gene interaction network distinctively under salt stress.

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    Effects of Different Water Stress Treatments on Core Germplasm Resources of Upland Cotton
    Jiangbo LI, Wenju GAO, Xiaodong YUN, Jieyin ZHAO, Shiwei GENG, Chunbin HAN, Quanjia CHEN, Qin CHEN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (3): 26-39.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0732
    Abstract125)   HTML10)    PDF (3010KB)(101)       Save

    In order to explore the response ability of upland cotton to drought under different water stress and screen the key drought-resistant indexes and the excellent drought-resistant germplasm resources,30 upland cotton core germplasms were selected as experimental materials, and compared with normal irrigation treatment during the whole growth period, 2 water stress treatments, one water after sowing and one water at the flowering bollboll stage respectively, and 2 water stress treatments at the flowering bollboll stage were set up. The corresponding indexes were measured at bud stage, boll stage and boll opening stage by descriptive statistical analysis, difference analysis, principal component analysis and correlation analysis, the drought resistance of materials was evaluated by using drought resistance comprehensive evaluation value (D). The results showed that drought stress had different effects on the growth and development of different cotton materials,the D value of the treatment of watering one water after sowing and one water at flowering and boll stage was more discrete (0.285~0.774) , which could more clearly distinguish between different varieties of drought resistance. Using D value, 30 materials could be divided into 4 types: Type Ⅰ included 6 cotton varieties such as ‘Zhongmiansuo 41’‘ Xinluzao 7’ etc. and showed high drought resistance; Type Ⅱ included 11 cotton varieties such as ‘Jinmian 46’‘Xinluzao 31’etc. and showed middle drought resistance; Type Ⅲ included 5 cotton varieties such as‘Zhongmiansuo 17’‘Lu 1138’etc. and showed drought sensitive; Type Ⅳ included 8 cotton varieties such as‘ Xinluzhong 8’‘Jiumian 8’ etc. and showed high sensitive to drought. The first node number of fruit branch, number of fruit branch, plant height, grain yield and lint percentage were sensitive to drought, which could be used as the key indexes for drought resistance evaluation of cotton. Above results could provide basis for cotton drought-resistant.

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    Theoretical Logic and Strategic Path of Accelerating the Construction of Livestock Powerhouse
    Zizhong SHI, Xiangdong HU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (9): 1-12.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0170
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    Accelerating the construction of livestock powerhouse is an important task for the construction of an agricultural powerhouse and a great modern socialist country. It is of great practical significance to scientifically understand the connotation requirements and theoretical logic of livestock powerhouse construction, grasp the current realistic basis and strategic path of accelerating the construction of livestock powerhouse. Based on the actual development of China’s livestock industry, this study understood the connotation requirements of livestock powerhouse construction in terms of domestic production and supply, international resource utilization, scientific and technological equipment support, feed and forage supply, green cycle development, animal disease prevention and control, and analyzed the realistic results of the current livestock industry development and the shortcomings of livestock powerhouse construction. In order to further lay a solid foundation for the construction of livestock powerhouse, it was recommended to consolidate the foundation of domestic production and supply, improve the efficiency of international resource utilization, enhance the capacity of scientific and technological support, strengthen feed and forage supply, promote green cycle development, and strengthen animal disease prevention and control.

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    Responses of Soil Available Phosphorus and Phosphorus Forms to Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Times
    Yurong SHEN, Ran LI, Minggang XU, Huaiping ZHOU, Ping LIU, Nan SUN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (10): 173-181.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0421
    Abstract123)   HTML1)    PDF (1214KB)(69)       Save

    The easy fixation of phosphorus fertilizer in soil is a main reason for the low utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer. In order to study the effects of fertilization frequency on availability of phosphorus fertilizer, three cinnamon soils with different Olsen-P levels (19.4, 24.2, 49.7 mg·kg-1) were collected in the long-term fertilization test based on Shouyang County, Jinzhong City Shanxi Province, and the same amount of phosphorus fertilizer (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) was added to the soil with different Olsen-P levels by once and 3 times, respectively. The soil with Olsen-P was incubated under constant temperature condition for 90 d, soil Olsen-P content was measured by 11 sampling intervals, and the phosphorus forms in soil were measured at the end of incubation. The effects of fertilization frequency on soil Olsen-P content, phosphorus fixation rate and phosphorus forms were analyzed, and characteristics on availability of phosphorus fertilizer under different fertilization times were clarified. The results showed that after 90 d of fertilization, the soil Olsen-P contents under 3 times of application increased significantly compared with that of once of application, and the increase rates at 3 Olsen-P levels were 21.0%, 13.5% and 9.4%, respectively. However, the phosphorus fixation rate decreased significantly, which were 8.0%, 6.8% and 10.5% at 3 Olsen-P levels, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten equation betterly fitted the process of soil phosphorus fixation. The maximum phosphorus fixation rate of once application was greater than that of 3 times application, but the time to reach 50% of the maximum phosphorus fixation rate was shorter than that of 3 times application. The phosphorus fixation rate decreased with the increase of Olsen-P levers under once application. Phosphorus fixation rate in high Olsen-P (49.7 mg·kg-1) soil was significantly reduced by 10.8%~12.4% compared with low Olsen-P (19.4~24.2 mg·kg-1) soil under 3 times application.When compared with once application, the content of labile P in soil increased by 6.8%~12.1%, and the content of non labile P decreased by 8.4% under 3 times application. This study showed that the 3 times application of phosphorus fertilizer could significantly improve the availability of soil phosphorus and reduce the fixation rate of phosphorus fertilizer; the higher soil Olsen-P content was, the smaller the proportion of phosphorus fertilizer was invalidated in soil; the 3 times application of phosphorus fertilizer could increase soil Olsen-P content, decrease phosphorus fixation rate and increase the content of labile P. These results had important directive significance to improve the utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer, and provided theoretical basis for efficient and scientific application of phosphorus fertilizer.

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    Image Recognition of Corn Disease Based on Transfer Learning
    Yantong ZHANG, Qianmin SU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (10): 119-125.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0218
    Abstract122)   HTML6)    PDF (1867KB)(112)       Save

    The traditional detection of crop disease mainly relies on manpower and experience, and the informatization level is low. In recent years, image recognition based on transfer learning has developed rapidly and achieved good application effect in many fields. MoblieNetV2 model was used to re-train and fine-tune corn disease image data set by transfer learning method. Then, the optimized corn disease recognition model was applied to the mobile terminal device for application development. The results showed that the final test accuracy reached to 96.83% after repeated training and fine-tuning of the pre-training model. Finally, the optimized model was used to develop a corn disease recognition APP, and the corn was photographed through the mobile APP to obtain the diagnosis results. The application was simple and easy to operate, which could facilitate and quickly identify maize diseases and have important application value in the future agricultural field.

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    Analysis of Meat Quality, Nutritional Components and Expression Characteristics of Meat Quality-related Genes in Tibetan Sheep at Different Altitudes
    Liangwei YAO, Yuzhu SHA, Xinyu GUO, Xiaoning PU, Ying XU, Jiqing WANG, Shaobin LI, Zhiyun HAO, Xiu LIU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (3): 66-75.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0385
    Abstract121)   HTML9)    PDF (1113KB)(99)       Save

    In order to study the difference of meat quality and the expression characteristics of meat quality-related genes in Tibetan sheep at different altitudes, the meat quality and nutritional components of longissimus dorsi, triceps brachii and biceps femoris of Tibetan sheep at altitude 2 500, 3 500 and 4 500 m were determined, and the expression levels of meat-related genes (H-FABPLPLMC4R and CAST) were determined and their correlations were analyzed. The results showed that the Tibetan sheep meat of low altitude had lower shearing force, lower water loss rate, higher tenderness and better taste, especially longissimus dorsi was better than the other 2 parts. The Tibetan sheep meat of high altitude had higher cooked meat rate and higher meat yield. The contents of mineral and crude protein in high altitude Tibetan sheep meat were higher, while the low altitude Tibetan sheep meat was more succulent. Compared with the two leg muscles, the longissimus dorsi had better taste. The expression levels of genes related to meat quality were differences among different altitudes. Among them, H-FABP had the highest expression levels in different muscles at mid-altitude, and LPLMC4R and CAST had the highest expression levels in biceps femoris of Tibetan sheep at low altitude, and was higher in the longissimus dorsi of Tibetan sheep at middle and high altitude. The correlation analysis showed that the expression levels of H-FABPLPLMC4R and CAST genes were significantly correlated with cooked meat rate, shear stress, water loss rate, ash, crude fat, crude protein and dry matter in Tibetan sheep. It showed that the meat quality and nutritional components of Tibetan sheep at different altitudes were different, and the expression levels of meat-related genes in different parts were also different, which affected the meat quality of Tibetan sheep. Above results provided basis for meat selection and genetic improvement of Tibetan sheep at different altitudes.

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    Metabolomic Analysis of Wheat Response to Salt Stress
    Xuemin JIANG, Xiangqian CHEN, Hongyan LI, Qiyan JIANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (9): 43-56.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0340
    Abstract119)   HTML17)    PDF (3364KB)(98)       Save

    The stable yield and income of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were greatly limited by salt stress. Elucidating the metabolic mechanism of wheat under salt stress will help to further optimize breeding and cultivation, thereby increasing wheat yields in saline-alkali soils. In this study, ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer(UPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze metabolic profiling of wheat roots and leaves treated with salt stress, and to analyze their response mechanism. A total of 759 metabolites differentially accumulated in roots and leaves were identified under normal growth and 24 h salt treatment conditions. In response to salt stress, 207 and 147 metabolites were changed in roots and leaves, respectively, among which 56 were the same differentially accumulated metabolites. Amino acids and their derivatives, flavonoids, organic acids and their derivatives, nucleotides and their derivatives accounted for about 50% of the total differentially accumulated metabolites of wheat roots and leaves in response to salt stress. In addition, lipids accounted for about 20% of the differentially accumulated metabolites of wheat leaves. These differentially accumulated metabolites were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, photosynthesis, carbon fixation and glucose metabolism etc in leaves, and secondary metabolism and amino acid synthesis etc in roots. They were interrelated and constitute a regulatory network of salt stress response, which may improve the adaptability to salt stress in wheat by alleviating osmotic and oxidative stress caused by salt stress.

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    Analysis of Global Transgenic Oilseed Rape Patent Information and Technology Outlook
    Mingdi CHEN, Xingru CHENG, Bo XU, Haiwen ZHANG, Wangtian WANG, Youhua WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 8-19.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0508
    Abstract117)   HTML7)    PDF (2390KB)(44)       Save

    In order to promote the application of biological breeding technology in agriculture and understand the development status, cultivation, import and export, and industrialization of global genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape crop, the analysis of global GM oilseed rape patent information through the Intelligent Bud Database (PatSnap) showed the global GM oilseed rape development trend, key technology areas, key acceptance countries, recearch and development (R&D) capability of each country, technology of R&D institutions in each country, competitiveness of major applicant institutions, legal status of patents, etc. The outlook and suggestions were proposed on GM oilseed rape R&D, layout of agricultural fields, global competition and promotion of oilseed rape industrialization.

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    Development and Application of Green Pest Control System Based on IoT Technology
    Yahui DING, Cheng CHEN, Xiaojun QIAO, Jianbo SHEN, Sen LIN, Yunhe ZHANG, Sisi FENG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2024, 26 (4): 77-86.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0830
    Abstract115)   HTML5)    PDF (5055KB)(67)       Save

    In order to reduce pesticide application, develop green pest prevention and control technology, and ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products, a green pest prevention and control system was designed which composed of multi-functional plant protection machine and information management system,for facility vegetables based on the internet of things(IoT) technology, and combined with ozone sterilization and disease prevention, light source induced pest control, crop health identification, pest identification and early warning and other technologies. The results showed that under the green control system, the incidence rate of strawberry powdery mildew decreased by 27.7%, and the average yield of strawberry increased by 19.8% compared with the conventional application method, which had significant effect on powdery mildew control and potential of strawberry yield increase. Meanwhile, the functions of system early warning service, various disinfection and sterilization methods, remote control and intelligent trusteeship had effectively alleviated the problems of backward plant protection technology and equipment, excessive dependence on pesticide use, structural shortage of labor force, and maintenance and operation difficulties in China. The application of the system realized the greening, specialization and intellectualization of vegetable pest control in facilities to a certain extent.

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    Evaluation of Nutritional Composition and Quality of Phallus impudicus L. from Different Producing Areas in Guizhou
    Yupeng LIU, Fang CHEN, Shuhong GU, Fang WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (11): 143-153.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0461
    Abstract112)   HTML5)    PDF (1384KB)(53)       Save

    In order to analyze the nutritional compositions and quality differences of Phallus impudicus L. in Guizhou,the contents of amino acids, mineral elements, ash, fat, crude fiber and total sugar in dry Phallus impudicus L. from 4 producing areas were determined, the protein quality was evaluated by amino acid ratio coefficient method and the comprehensive quality was evaluated by principal component analysis. The results showed that, the contents of N, P, K and Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn were 18.70~22.45, 3.55~4.83, 29.63~39.64 g·kg-1 and 508.64~686.89,12.37~17.54,92.30~497.54,1.55~1.98,24.84~51.61 mg·kg-1, respectively. The contents of ash, fat, crude fiber and total sugar were 5.83%~6.27%, 0.83%~1.49%,0.25%~0.47%,28.92%~34.90%, respectively. 17 amino acids were detected in Phallus impudicus L. from different producing areas, content of Glu was the highest, the contents of essential amino acids, total amino acids were 4.24%~5.55%, 10.70%~12.93%, respectively. Dejiang had the highest index of all the above indicators. Amino acid evaluation results showed that Lys was the first limiting amino acid of Phallus impudicus L., and the essential amino acid index (EAAI) values of Phallus impudicus L. from 4 producing area were all more than 1, which could be used as high quality protein source. The amino acid ratio coefficient score (SRCAA) value showed that Dejiang had the highest nutritional value of protein. The result of principal component analysis showed that Dejiang had the best quality whose comprehensive score was the highest. This study provided scientific basis for quality control, development and utilization of Phallus impudicus L. in Guizhou province.

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