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    Trends and Strategies for Development of Crop Seed Industry in China
    Xinhai LI, Ming LU, Jun ZHENG, Xiaofeng GU, Lijuan QIU, Yu LI, Youzhi MA, Jianmin WAN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 1-7.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1101
    Abstract1402)   HTML42)    PDF (506KB)(258)       Save

    Seed industry is a strategic and basic industry, and clarifying the development path of China’s crop seed industry is very important to enhance the competitiveness of national agriculture. This paper analyzed the development trend of the international crop seed industry, assessed the opportunities and challenges faced by the development of China’s crop seed industry, and proposed the innovative development strategies of China’s crop seed industry in the new era. Our study reckoned that the new round of scientific and technological revolution characterized by “biotechnology and informatization” had promoted the comprehensive upgrading of the crop seed industry, biotechnology productions had become an important growth point for the development of the seed industry, and multinational seed enterprises had accelerated their occupation of the global seed market. Global scientific and technological innovation and China’s economic transformation and development have brought new opportunities for the development of China’s crop seed industry. Currently,China has basically established a scientific and technological innovation system for crop seed, and seed enterprises have continued to grow, but still facing some challenges such as insufficient original innovation in key science and technology, imperfect seed industry innovation system. Our study suggested that China’s crop seed industry should further strengthen the effective cohesion in the innovation chain and build a deep integration system of production, education and research in the new era, and consolidate the original foundation of seed science and technology, produce high-value intellectual property rights such as key technologies and elite new varieties, as well as cultivate innovative enterprises, improve policy mechanisms and business environment, and promote the high-quality development of the crop seed industry.

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    Research Progress on the Breeding and Application of Sex Control in Snakehead
    Mi OU, Jian ZHAO, Qing LUO, Haiyang LIU, Rong HUANG, Yaping WANG, Kunci CHEN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (2): 11-25.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0578
    Abstract1307)   HTML4)    PDF (3086KB)(131)       Save

    Snakehead(Channa)is an important freshwater fish in China,which has obvious sexual dimorphism,with fast growth rate,large size and low feed coefficient ratio in male individuals.Therefore,monosex culture of all-male production is of great economic significance.In this review,the breeding and application of sex control in all-male hybrid snakehead were described.Super-male blotched snakehead(Channa maculata)was produced by sex-specific molecular marker and reproductive endocrine regulation technology,the female parent northern snakehead(Channa argus)was selected for two generations,then “all-male hybrid No.1”(C. argus ♀XX × C. maculata ♂YY)were produced by combining sex control,population selection and hybridization of super-male C. maculata and the selected female C. argus. Growth performance indicated that “all-male hybrid No.1” had high male rate,rapid growth,uniform size,low feed coefficient ratio and wide breeding adaptability.The research on sex control in Channa not only promoted the structural adjustment and industrial upgrading of snakehead,but also provided theoretical and technical support for sex control of other fish,which could accelerate the breeding process of monosex culture.

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    Accelerate the Research and Application of Biological Breeding to Promote the Self-Reliance of Agricultural Science and Technology
    Wen ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 8-14.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0733
    Abstract1244)   HTML12)    PDF (491KB)(106)       Save

    Food security is the the pillar of national development and safety. General Secretary XI Jinping pointed that the fundamental solution to stabilize and increase the food production lay in the scientific and technological progress concerning the limited arable land in domestic. At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution in agriculture characterized by modern biotechnology is breeding major breakthroughs, and plays a leading role in the development of modern agriculture. The development of biological breeding is an important strategy to ensure the national food security and enhance the international competitiveness. This paper introduced the development trend of biological breeding in the development of international agricultural science and technology. For promoting the industrial application of biological breeding, 4 of relationships should be correctly handled, and 4 tasks should be put forward, which provided theoretical guidance for accelerating the development and application of biological breeding technologies in China.

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    Epigenetic Regulation and Crop Breeding
    Xianwei SONG, Shanjie TANG, Xiaofeng CAO
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 33-38.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1040
    Abstract1155)   HTML18)    PDF (440KB)(183)       Save

    Epigenetic is a biological phenomenon that DNA sequence unchanged but gene expression was genetically altered, and it includs DNA methylation, histone modification and variants, RNA modification, chromatin remodeling and non coding RNA etc. Epigenetic mainly regulates gene expression and transposon activity at transcriptional and post transcriptional levels. More and more research showed that epigenetic plays an important role in the formation of important agronomic traits and ploidy breeding of crops. This paper reviewed the important progress in the research of epigenetic regulation directly related to crop breeding, and analyzed its potential and ways of application in crop breeding, which were expected to accelerate and promote the basic and applied research of plant epigenetic regulation.

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    Artificial Intelligence Accelerates Epigenetics and Plant Breeding
    Weijun GUO, Dongwei LI, Shang XIE, Liwen YANG, Cong LI, Jian TIAN, Li PU, Xiaofeng GU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 90-100.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1031
    Abstract1134)   HTML21)    PDF (1136KB)(226)       Save

    The rapid growth of the global population and tremendous climatic changes are new challenges for food security and compel breeders to develop new avenues of crop breeding. In recent years, the deep integration of biotechnology (BT) with artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and other information technology (IT) has promoted the rapid development of intelligent design breeding technology. AI-based breeding technology accelerates multi-omics mapping and functional elucidation and the identification of excellent allele variations around the genome, and breeds new varieties through genome design breeding traits. The crucial agricultural breeding traits of crops are synergistically regulated by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that epigenetic marks bridge other factors playing a pivotal role in the regulation of traits. The development of intelligent design technology makes it possible for accurate design breeding based on epigenetic inheritance, which is becoming a new way to improve crop breeding traits. The deep integration of epigenetics and AI has greatly facilitated the identification of genome-wide epigenetic modification sites and the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms. The design of regulatory circuits based on these epigenetic sites has been innovated to achieve the directional creation of new germplasm with excellent comprehensive traits and the cultivation of major varieties.

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    Fish Breeding Technology Based on Whole Genome Analysis and Its Application
    Mijuan SHI, Wanting ZHANG, Yingyin CHENG, Xiaoqin XIA
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (2): 33-41.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0584
    Abstract1111)   HTML6)    PDF (819KB)(178)       Save

    With the development and popularization of high-throughput sequencing technologies, fish genomes are increasingly sequenced and assembled. How to apply these genomic information and high-throughput sequencing technology in fish breeding is a concern in the aquaculture industry. Compared with crops, livestock and poultry, the development and application of breeding technology based on whole genome analysis in fish is lagging behind. At present, fish breeding mainly refers to various methods established in other species. Usually such a method is developed based on the characteristics of a specific species and is not completely suitable for fish. Although these methods provide references for the whole genome breeding of fish, they bring difficulties for users to understand and choose the various technologies and algorithms. This article reviewed the breeding-related technologies based on whole-genome analysis in different fields, and introduced the mechnism and application of different technologies such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genome-wide linkage analysis (GWLA) and genomic selection (GS), and recommended some commonly used software to provide guidance for fish breeding based ongenomic analysis technologies.

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    Prospects for Commercialization of Biotech Breeding Technology of Important Crops in China
    Jian ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 15-24.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0697
    Abstract1100)   HTML9)    PDF (538KB)(242)       Save

    China has more population in the world but with limited arable land and water resources. Scientific innovation becomes a unique solution to promote the crop productions for national food security. Commercialization of biotech breeding technology in maize, soybean, oil rape and cotton has played a critical role in seed industry developmentin these major crop production countries including US, Brazil and Argentina. After over 20 years’ scientific innovation of biotech crop research and development (R&D) in China, the biotechnology crops for maize and soybean with resistance to insect and herbicide tolerant traits have been ready, these biotech crops would not only reduce the inputs of crop production, but also increase the yield and farmers’ incomes significantly. Due to the commercialization of biotech breeding technology involves in multiple aspects of research and development of scientific innovation, regulatory appraisal of biosafety and stewardship requirements, international trade, agricultural production and public acceptance etc., which is a large and complex system engineer. Therefore, only those of the larger seed enterprises with capabilities can lead the whole processes by integrating R&D resources of scientific, academic and seed industrial units to create an innovation consortium for collaborations across the whole R&D chain and commercial chain together. Such an innovation consortium will be capable to continuously launch new varieties with better-yielding, nutritious, less inputs and environmental-friendly products should steadily support the commercialization of biotech breeding technology of important crops towards a sustainable and high-quality development of seed industry in China. Biotech breeding technology is the core of seed innovation, so establishing an innovative system for modern breeding and strengthening the deep mine of germplasm resources plus breaking through the key technologies of cutting-edge breeding for strategic new varieties, becomes the solution for germplasm improvement and a key for winning the seed industry as well as the fundamental support for firmly grasping the initiative of food security. This paper summarized the application of biotech breeding, and proposed the developmental strategies of modern seed industry. Biotech breeding technology will become the important approach to solve the germplasm resource shortage and environmental constrains faced by China’s agricultural development while driving the development of China’s modern seed industry and the continuous improvement of international competitiveness, and realizing the leap from a large seed industry to a strong seed country.

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    Research Progress of New Crop Germplasm Enhancement in China
    Hao CHEN, Fei ZHOU, Yongjun LIN
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 112-119.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0998
    Abstract1097)   HTML9)    PDF (493KB)(169)       Save

    As a country with a large population and agriculture, our government has always attached great importance to agricultural issues and food security. Based on the national conditions of large population and limited arable land resources, China tolces relying on scientific and technological development to improve the yield level as the main means to ensure the food security. With the active deployment and strong support on agricultural development, China has made continuous breakthroughs and innovations in crop breeding theory and technology in recent years. The genetic dissection of important agronomic traits of crops, the utilization of gene alleles with high breeding value, the innovation and application of gene editing technology, genomic breeding and de novo domestication strategies, industrialization pilot of transgenic soybean and maize provide new ideas and strategies for the creation of new crop germplasm in China. This paper sorted out and reviewed some representative achievements made by China in this field, and briefly summarized and looked forward to the development prospects.

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    Genome Editing and Its Applications in Crop Improvement
    Lei YAN, Jinshan ZHANG, Jiankang ZHU, Lanqin XIA
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 78-89.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1030
    Abstract1087)   HTML18)    PDF (1256KB)(203)       Save

    In the context of climate change, increasing world population, decreased farmland as well as frequent outbreaks of natural disasters, global food production is facing unprecedent challenges. CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing technologies enable targeted genome modification in a sequence-specific manner, offering great potential in crop improvement. This review aimed to provide an informative summary of the latest development and breakthroughs in CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing technologies including gene knockout, base editing, prime editing and gene replacement through homology-directed repair (HDR), as well as their applications in crop improvement. Finally, we discussed the existing challenges and future prospects in the development of novel genome editing toolkits and their applications in agriculture to ensure global food security and sustainable agricultural development.

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    Application and Prospect of Virus-induced Gene Silencing in Crop Gene Function Research
    Mengyuan HAO, Qi HANG, Gongyao SHI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (1): 1-13.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0781
    Abstract1087)   HTML82)    PDF (1362KB)(691)       Save

    With the completion of crop genome sequencing, a large number of genes' functions affecting important agronomic traits of crops are waiting to be discovered. Due to the lack of genetic transformation methods, the research on gene function of most crops is progressing slowly. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology does not rely on genetic transformation. Through virus vector inoculation, efficient silencing of targeted genes can be achieved in contemporary plants. VIGS technology is increasingly used in reverse genetics for analysis of gene functions and metabolic pathways in different crops due to its fast onset time, high silencing efficiency, low operating cost, high-throughput and wide application of plants. This article introduced the technical principles and development process of VIGS, systematically summarized the application of VIGS in different crop research, and then summarized and discussed the limitations of existing VIGS applications and several key factors affecting its silence efficiency, and finally the application in future plant biology research was prospected, which would provide reference for its further application and development.

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    Genetic Regulation Mechanisms of Important Traits and Molecular Design Breeding in Livestock and Poultry
    Wenyue WANG, Xiaoyu MI, Kangtai SUN, Yichao DAI, Zhipeng YAO, Yuanpeng GAO, Jun LIU, Yiqiang GE, Songmei ZHANG, Xiaoming DENG, Yong ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 39-47.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0979
    Abstract1086)   HTML8)    PDF (519KB)(176)       Save

    Research on the genetic basis of important economic traits in livestock and poultry is important for the next generation of molecular design breeding, which is the research frontier of scientific and technological innovation in the international livestock and poultry seed industry. Livestock and poultry breeds are rich in resources, diverse in production types, wide in ecological adaptation range, and outstanding in excellent traits in China. However, there are problems of insufficient protection and collection of germplasm resources, unclear analysis of trait characteristics and genetic mechanisms etc., resulting in insufficient development and utilization of rich livestock and poultry genetic resources in China, and it is difficult to support the research and development and application of molecular design breeding technology. To face the demand of future agriculture modernization and production of livestock and poultry seed industry, this paper summarized the research progress on genetic regulation mechanism and molecular design breeding of important traits of livestock and poultry at home and abroad, as well as the bottlenecks faced by molecular design breeding of livestock and poultry in China, and discussed the development trend of molecular design breeding of livestock and poultry in the future. The review provided significant insights for technological innovation and development of the future livestock and poultry breeding industry.

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    Global Genetically Modified Crop Industrialization Trends in 2022
    Haohui LI, Caiyue LIU, Haiwen ZHANG, Xujing WANG, Qiaoling TANG, Youhua WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2023, 25 (12): 6-16.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2023.0756
    Abstract1084)   HTML67)    PDF (752KB)(651)       Save

    Since the commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops in 1996, their industrial applications have developed rapidly in worldwide with increasing planting area and crop types, which have significant economic and social benefits. This paper analyzed the global situation of GM crops cultivation in 2022, and the development trends of major countries and regions planting GM crops. In 2022, the planting area of GM crops accounted for about 12% of the total arable land area with an increase of 3.3%. The number of the countries approved to cultivate GM crops increased to 29, and 71 countries and regions approved the commercial application of GM products. Based on the planting area of GM crops, the GM corn and soybean were dominant, and the planting area of the GM crops with multiple traits was also constantly expanding. The industrial applications of GM crops will become new growth driver for agricultural production and economic development, and the applications and effects of GM crops will continuously increase with the iterative upgrading of bioengineering breeding technologies.

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    Study and Application of Salt and Alkali Tolerance in Rapeseed
    Heping WAN, Hao ZHANG, Yi YU, Jingdong CHEN, Changli ZENG, Lun ZHAO, Jing WEN, Jinxiong SHEN, Tingdong FU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 59-67.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0970
    Abstract1051)   HTML17)    PDF (578KB)(132)       Save

    Soil salinization has become one of the main limiting factors for agricultural development. The stress damage of saline alkali to plants can be divided into osmotic stress, ion toxicity, active oxygen damage and high pH stress. Saline alkali stress has different effects on seed germination, seedling growth, yield and quality of rapeseed. This paper expounded the influence mechanism of saline alkali stress on different growth stages of rapeseed, analyzed the saline alkali tolerance mechanism of rape from the aspects of osmotic regulation, active oxygen removal, absorption and storage of Na+, and the secretion of organic acids by roots, and put forward measures to improve the saline alkali tolerance of rapeseed, including exploring and utilizing saline alkali tolerance genes, adopting reasonable cultivation methods and using exogenous substances, which provided theoretical basis for the improvement and utilization of saline alkali land by using saline alkali tolerant rapeseed.

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    Digital Development of China’s Crop Industry: Achievements, Difficulties and Prospects
    Beibei FAN, Jin LI, Chen MA
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 25-32.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0579
    Abstract1050)   HTML9)    PDF (469KB)(113)       Save

    As the basic industry of agricultural modernization, promoting the revitalization of seed industry has become one of the core tasks of building China’s strategic science and technology system and promoting the overall revitalization of rural areas. China has initially realized the integration of digital technology with breeding, complex seed production, industrial extension and other aspects. However, compared with the status quo that developed countries and region in Europe and the United States have entered the “4.0 era” of intelligent design breeding, China’s breeding technology research and development is still in the “2.0 era” to “3.0 era” of the seed industry. In the face of the development trend of intelligent breeding and seed breeding, precision seed industry promotion and service, and in-depth seed industry big data collection, the integration and innovation research of digital technology, molecular breeding and conventional breeding technology, and in-depth development of multiple genetics should be encouraged. The big data mining and analysis, application of commercial breeding software and platforms, and the comprehensive establishment of the digital marketing and management system should be promoted.

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    Application and Development Prospect of Fish Stem Cell in Breeding
    Wanwan ZHANG, Meisheng YI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (2): 26-32.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0577
    Abstract1044)   HTML13)    PDF (434KB)(155)       Save

    The farmed aquatic fish is one of the most important food sources of high-quality animal protein. The sustainable development of aquaculture industry depends heavily on new fish varieties with genetic improvement by both traditional methods, such as selective breeding and hybridization breeding, and innovative technologies including molecular assisted selection and gene editing. In recent years, the fish stem cell technologies including stem cell transplantation and induction methods have been showing great promise in fish breeding. Here, we summarized the progress and potential applications of fish stem cell technologies in breeding, clarified the main characteristics in cell manipulation, and highlighted the challenges and perspectives in further work, which should provide some guidelines for fish stem cell research and the application of stem cell technologies in fish breeding.

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    Research Progress on Sex Control Breeding of Fish
    Binbin TAO, Wei HU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (2): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0582
    Abstract961)   HTML46)    PDF (542KB)(382)       Save

    Sex control of fish is one of the important research interests in the field of genetic breeding of aquatic animals. Some biotechnologies, such as endocrine regulation of reproduction, artificially induced gynogenesis, cross breeding, and marker assisted selection breeding were wildly used to study sex control of farmed fishes, and a batch of monosex farmed fish varieties with excellent traits have been cultivated. The analysis of genome and functional genome of farmed fishes, the discovery of sex determination and differentiation related genes, and the establishment of cutting-edge biotechnologies such as efficient and specific gene editing have provided important theoretical guidance and technical support for the establishment of more precise sex control breeding technology and creation of new germplasm of farmed fishes. This paper reviewed the theoretical basis of fish sex control breeding and the research progress on fish sex control technology, which would provide theoretical and technical support for breeding high-yield, good-quality and environmentally friendly varieties of farmed fish.

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    Research Progress on Molecular Basis of Tree Traits Formation
    Shougong ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 48-58.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0943
    Abstract957)   HTML3)    PDF (640KB)(55)       Save

    Forestry is one of the important industries of the national economy. In-depth study of tree traits for the purpose of human needs and analysis of the molecular basis of the formation of tree important traits are the basic guarantee for the establishment of efficient breeding technology system, and the key to cultivate breakthrough varieties that meet the major national needs. This is of great significance to ensure the sustainable development of forestry in China, and serve major strategies such as national timber security, food security, ecological security and rural revitalization. With the rapid development of biotechnology, the research on the molecular basis of tree traits has become more in-depth. This paper focused on the formation and regulation mechanism of wood formation, forest economic traits and tree stress resistance, sorted out the current research progress at home and abroad, reviewed the molecular basis of tree trait formation, and prospected the future research trends and technological development of tree traits.

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    Innovation and Progresses in de novo Domestication of Crops
    Jingkun ZHANG, Wenjia LI, Peng ZENG, Xiangbing MENG, Hong YU, Jiayang LI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 68-77.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0985
    Abstract946)   HTML11)    PDF (1225KB)(91)       Save

    In the past century, the breeding theories and systems have been greatly developed, and series of new breeding strategies have gradually emerged, such as heterosis utilization, hybrid breeding, mutagenesis breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding, genome editing breeding, molecular design breeding etc. making critical contributions to world food security. Recently, along with the development of biotechnologies, a new breeding strategy termed de novo domestication has been proposed and demonstrated to create new crops. Here, this paper reviewed the emergence of de novo domestication and its roadmap, the germplasm basis, the genetic basis and the fundamental biotechnologies and related policy of de novo domestication. Furthermore, it also discussed presumable challenges and applications of de novo domestication in crop breeding. In future, de novo domestication may provide a new practical way for germplasm innovation and achieve novel breeding goals to face upcoming agriculture challenges.

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    Development Trends and Strategies of Gene Circuit Design and Synthesis Technologies in Agricultural Organisms
    Min LIN, Lei WANG, Xiaofeng GU, Yongliang YAN, Zhu LIU, Tao TU, Bin YAO
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 101-111.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.1021
    Abstract939)   HTML10)    PDF (1036KB)(44)       Save

    With the highly cross-integration of frontier disciplines such as bioomics, systems biology and synthetic biology, the new generation of genetic engineering technology has maked new breakthroughs. Gene circuit design and synthesis is the core technology of the new generation of genetic engineering, and its three technical characteristics are subversion, intelligence and precision. Accelerating the innovation of gene circuit design and synthesis technology of agricultural organisms will provide important technical support for creating a new generation of agricultural varieties and promoting the high-quality green development of Chinese agriculture. In this paper, the international development trends of gene circuit design and synthesis technology of agricultural organisms were summarized, and the development strategies and priority fields of intelligent design and precise expression technology of agricultural biological gene circuit in China were discussed.

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    Development of Biobreeding Techniques in Main Aquaculture Fish Species
    Yonghua SUN, Wei HU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 120-128.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0711
    Abstract910)   HTML18)    PDF (535KB)(179)       Save

    As blue food, fish and other aquatic products are recognized as healthy and high-quality sources of animal protein, and play significant roles in supporting global food and nutrition security. China is the largest aquaculture country in the world, and its success stories have attracted global attention. China has developed and utilized various breeding methods for aquaculture species, such as selection breeding, hybridization breeding, polyploid breeding, transgenic breeding, etc. and carried out genome editing and genome selection-based breeding in some species, pioneered some novel breeding methods, such as the fish germline stem cell-oriented approach and reproduction on-off strategy. By using these technologies, Chinese aquaculture scientists have bred various aquaculture species or fish lines with valuable traits, which drives and supports the high-quality development of Chinese aquaculture. This article systematically reviewed the development and application of the above biobreeding techniques in the generation and application of novel fish strains with valuable traits, and provided an outlook on the future development of biobreeding technology, which aimed to promote the breeding of new lines and varieties of aquaculture fish, and support the high-quality development of aquaculture in China.

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    Effect of Long-term Straw Returning on Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Composition in Rice-Wheat Rotation Ecosystem
    Linlin DONG, Jinfang ZHA, Mingxing SHEN, Haihou WANG, Linlin SHI, Yueyue TAO, Xinwei ZHOU, Changying LU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (3): 166-175.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0545
    Abstract849)   HTML7)    PDF (1056KB)(60)       Save

    In order to study the effect of long-term straw returning on content of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Taihu Lake rice-wheat rotation region, based on 10 years field positioning experiments, 4 treatments were set including no rice straw+all wheat straw returning (W), all rice straw+no wheat straw returning (R), half of rice straw and wheat straw returning (HRW) and all rice straw and wheat straw returning (ARW), and no straw returning was control (CK). The contents and components of SOC in different treatments were determined. The results showed that straw types and returning amounts significantly influenced the contents and compositions of SOC in rice-wheat rotation system. Compared with 2007, the growth rates of SOC, heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) and light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) were 0.18~0.46, 0.15~0.42 and -0.03~0.02 g·kg-1·a-1, respectively; the content of SOC and HFOC significantly increased in R, HRW and ARW treatments, and the carbon contents in light fraction organic matter (LFOM-C) decreased significantly in all treatments, which the decreased range of ARW treatment was more than other treatments. HFOC was the main component and accounted for more than 80% of SOC in all treatments, which the proportions of HFOC increased in W and HRW and decreased in CK, R and ARW treatments. Straw returning reduced the relationship between rice yield and the contents of SOC or components, and LFOC had more influence on rice yield than HFOC. In conclusion, all amount of rice and wheat straw returning could increase the content and stability of SOC, which could be considered as an ideal straw returning model in Taihu Lake region.

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    Progress in Integrated Rice-crayfish Farming System
    Hui XU, Yangyang ZHAO, Dongyue SUN, Yuanyuan KE, Lele ZHANG, Xiang CHEN, Fengzhen WEI, Jincai LI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (2): 160-168.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.1114
    Abstract787)   HTML5)    PDF (781KB)(174)       Save

    Integrated rice (Oryzasativa)-crayfish (Procambarusclarkii) farming system is considered as comprehensive farming system for rice and fisheries cultivation at the same time. In the recent years, it has developed rapidly in China, especially in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. This paper reviewed the theoretical research progress and industrial development of rice-shrimp co-cropping mode in the past decade. In the view of theoretical research progress, the influence of integrated rice-crayfish farming system on paddy field ecology was clarified from the characteristics of paddy field soil, water quality, biodiversity and greenhouse gas emission. And in view of technical research progress, the development of green production technology of integrated rice-crayfish farming system was contributing in stabilizing the sown area and reducing the input of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. At the same time, enhanced quality and output of paddy rice and crayfish had been observed. But for long term and large scaled development of rice-crayfish industry still needed to carry out industrial organization optimization and upgrading. Alongside, there were a small number of risky questions arise in the development of integrated rice-crayfish farming system, such as invasion risk, germplasm degradation,“only emphasizing crayfish, but neglecting rice” and so on. Such tricky questions restricted the sustainable development of integrated rice-crayfish farming system. In order to promote the research and wide application of integrated rice-crayfish farming system and cope such limitations, 3 suggestions were put forwarded, establishing agricultural analysis system and information database about paddy field, classifying the promotion areas of rice-crayfish; strengthening the research of basic theory and integrated technology mode and at the same time promoting the integration of research, implementation and production; strengthening policy support and technical services to ensure the economic benefits of business entities.

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    Effects of Reductive Soil Disinfestation on Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Soil Enzyme Activity in Continuous Cropping of Ginseng
    Ning YAN, Yu ZHAN, Xinyue MIAO, Ergang WANG, Changbao CHEN, Qiong LI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (6): 133-144.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0695
    Abstract740)   HTML7)    PDF (4023KB)(39)       Save

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) and soil fumigation (SF) technologies can control soil-borne diseases more effectively and repair degraded soil quickly. In order to research the effects of 2 technologies on soil bacterial community of continuous cropping ginseng, 3 treatments were set up: reductive soil disinfestation plus soil fumigation (RSD+SF), reductive soil disinfestation plus compound bacteria (RSD+F) and soil fumigation plus compound bacteria (SF+F). IlluminaMiseq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze and determine the soil bacterial community and soil enzyme activities by 3 soil modification methods. The results showed that the highest diversity and richness of bacterial community was found in RSD+F group, and those of the lowest was found in SF+F group, and 3 groups had 431 identical bacterial genera. The highest bacterial richness was Gemmatimonas with abundance of 9.17% in RSD+SF group, norank_f_noranko_Gaiellales had the highest bacterial richness with abundance of 8.72% in RSD+F group, and Bacillus had the highest bacterial richness with abundance of 9.16% in RSD+F group. Bacillus was the common dominant bacterial community of the top 10 dominant flora in the soil by 3 improved methods. Correlation analysis showed that the soil enzyme activity significantly correlated with soil bacterial community structure. With the increase of growth time, the soil enzyme activities of continuous cropping ginseng with different soil modification methods were significantly different (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3 soil improvement methods could increase the richness of beneficial bacteria genus and improve soil enzyme activity to different degrees, and the number of beneficial bacteria genus and soil enzyme activity in RSD+SF group and RSD+F group were higher than those in SF+F group.

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    Influence of Reduced Irrigation on Agronomic Traits, Yield and Fiber Quality of Transgenic ScALDH21 Cotton
    LI Shengmei, ZHANG Dawei, DILIBAIER Dilimaimaiti, WEI Xin, RUI Cun, YANG Tao, GENG Shiwei, GAO Wenwei
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (9): 152-159.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0485
    Abstract714)      PDF (1059KB)(28)       Save
    To study the effect of reduced irrigation on the growth and development of transgenic cotton with drought resistance in different periods,  the stable genetically transgenic ScALDH21 cotton line T14-96 was used as the  material, and receptor Xinnongmian 1  as negative control. The differences  of agronomic traits, yield traits and fiber quality between transgenic material and recipient cotton were studied under normal watering during the whole growth period (CK), 30% reduced irrigation at the seedling bud stage (M3), 30% reduced irrigation at the blooming stage (H3), and 30% continuously reduced irrigation at the seedling bud stage and blooming stage (W3). The results showed, compared with CK, the plant height, the height of first fruit branch, the number of fruit branches and the number of bolls per plant of the transgenic ScALDH21 cotton and its receptor were all decreased  under reduced irrigation. Under the M3 and H3 treatments, the seed cotton yields of Xinnongmian 1 and T14-96 were respectively increased by 1.6%, 1.4% and 5.1%, 4.1%, respectively, while under the W3 treatment, all yield traits were almost  decreased except the lint percentage and lint cotton yield. Principal component analysis showed that plant height, the height of first fruit branch, fruit branch number, single boll weight, seed index, seed cotton yield and lint yield were significantly affected by transgene. Therefore, these indexes could be regarded as the main indexes to distinguish transgenic plant from receptor. The transgenic ScALDH21 cotton line T14-96 was more drought-resistant, growth advantages and higher yield than wild-type in treatments of reduced irrigation.  ScALDH21  had a positive effect on increasing cotton yield, but no significant effect on fiber quality. In the seedling bud stage, appropriately reduced irrigation could achieve the effects of water-saving and yield increasing. These results would provide theoretical basis for breeding of new varieties resistanting to drought and optimizing irrigation methods.
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    Artificial Gynogenesis Technique and Its Application in Fish Breeding
    Wen FU, Liangyue PENG, Yamei XIAO
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (2): 42-48.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0576
    Abstract683)   HTML8)    PDF (450KB)(140)       Save

    Gynogenesis is a special reproductive mode that depends on female prokaryotic development. Artificial gynogenesis technique (AGT) has been developed into an effective way of fish genetic improvement, which plays an important role in the purification and rejuvenation of fish germplasm and breeding of fine species. Based on the practice of fish breeding, this paper systematically summarized the technical approaches and research status of AGT, and put forward the existing problems of AGT, in order to provide reference for the future development of AGT.

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    Research Progress on Development of New Germplasm of Forest Trees
    Junhui WANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (12): 129-141.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0946
    Abstract665)   HTML3)    PDF (945KB)(64)       Save

    The innovation of forest germplasm is the basis for the revitalization of forest seed industry, and is a solid foundation for ensuring the national timber, grain and oil and ecological security. With the upgrading of instruments and equipment, the development of multi-omics, intelligence and information technology and the improvement of relevant theoretical level, the research of forest germplasm in China has changed from traditional empirical collection and extensive evaluation to modern, targeted and efficient new germplasm creation and large-scale, accurate, systematic evaluation and mining. This paper reviewed the progress of new forest germplasm creation in China from 4 aspects: the current situation, the core key technology, the large-scale breeding, and the future development direction of new forest germplasm. It was proposed that the combination of traditional hybrid breeding and modern biotechnology should accelerate the development of high-throughput accurate evaluation, whole genome selection, precise genome operation new technologies for germplasm develpment and breeding, such as synthetic biology and cell factory, serve the creation of high-quality germplasm and the cultivation of breakthrough new varieties.

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    Characteristics of the Growth of Rhodococcus pyridinivorans Rp3 and Ability to Degrade Skatole
    Yuhong WU, Rongjun GUO, Guizhen MA, Shidong LI
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (6): 82-89.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0139
    Abstract633)   HTML0)    PDF (855KB)(13)       Save

    To obtain an optimal medium for the growth of Rhodococcuspyridinivorans strain Rp3 and clarify the influence of different factors on its ability to degrade skatole, the fermentation medium was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments, and the skatole content in the medium was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine the effects of optimal carbon and nitrogen, metal ions, temperature, and continuous subculture on the growth of strain Rp3 and its ability to degrade skatole. The results showed that strain Rp3 could utilize skatole as the sole carbon for its growth. The growth of strain Rp3 promoted by organic carbon and nitrogen was as following: yeast extract powder>beef extract>sucrose. The optimal carbon and nitrogen were sucrose 16 g·L-1, beef extract 14 g·L-1 and yeast extract 6 g·L-1. Skatole couldn’t be degraded in the medium without Mg2+, and its degradation significantly reduced when Mg2+ was replaced by Fe2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+. The skatole degrading ability of strain Rp3 increased with the raised temperature. The degrading efficacy could reach 82.9%~95.5% when cultured at 28~40 ℃ for 24 hours. The carbon and nitrogen source and continuous subculture didn’t affect the skatole degradation by strain Rp3. The above results indicated that Rhodococcuspyridinivorans Rp3 was a potential strain to be developed further due to its convenient and stable culturing characteristics.

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    Heterologous Expression and Characterization of a Catalase from Pseudomonas stutzer S12
    ZHAO Shuxue, LIU Xiaoqing, WU Ningfeng, TIAN Jian
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (11): 73-80.   DOI: 10.1334/j.nykjdb.2020.0838
    Abstract630)      PDF (2064KB)(40)       Save
    At present, the commercial catalases mostly come from animal liver and Aspergillus niger fermentation, but these enzymes usually have poor thermal stability, low enzyme activity and high price. In order to solve this problem, a strain of Pseudomonas Stutzeri S12 with the high-level activity of catalase was isolated from landfill leachate. Through whole genome sequencing and gene identification, the gene katE encoding catalase in this strain was found, and it was heterologously expressed and purified in E. coli BL21 (DE3). KatE’s optimal temperature was 35 ℃, the optimal pH was 8.0, and its activity couldreach to 1 349 U·mg-1. The enzyme had a wide range of temperature adaptability in the range of 10 ~ 40 ℃. KatE had good thermal stability. After being treated at 50 ℃ for 5 h, 70% enzyme activity was remained, and after being incubated at 60 ℃ for 2 h, 50% enzyme activity was remained. The Km and Vmax values were 100.5 mmol·L-1 and 16 666 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively. The enzyme activity was better under medium and low temperature conditions, showed good thermal stability and high enzyme activity, which provided a new material for the development of new commercial catalase.
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    Identification of Drought Tolerance During Whole Growth Period in Cotton Germplasm Resources and Resistance Index Screening
    LI Jinglin, LIU Shaodong, ZHANG Siping, CHEN Jing, LIU Ruihua, SHEN Qian, LI Yang, MA Huijuan, ZHAO Xinhua, PANG Chaoyou
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (10): 52-65.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.1084
    Abstract619)      PDF (5866KB)(116)       Save
    To identify drought-resistant cotton varieties and screen the identification index  during the whole growth period, 238 cotton varieties with different drought resistance were treated with normal irrigation and drought stress during the whole growth period. The indexes of plant height, boll number, boll weight and soluble sugar content were selected, and drought resistance coefficient, principal component analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the drought resistance of 238 cotton  resources and screen the drought resistance index. The results showed that drought stress had a significant effect on the growth of cotton during the whole growth period. Taking drought resistance (D value) as the main parameter, weighted drought resistance coefficient (WDC) and comprehensive drought resistance coefficient (CDC) as auxiliary parameters, 238 cotton variety resources could be divided into 5 grades, including 10 of typeⅠ (high drought resistance), 61 of typeⅡ (drought resistance), 84 of typeⅢ (moderate drought resistance), 78 of typeⅤ (sensitive type) and 5 of typeⅤ (highly sensitive type). Plant height, boll weight, lint percentage and soluble sugar content were more sensitive to drought stress than other indexes, which could be used as indicators for evaluating drought resistance of cotton variety resources during the whole growth period. Above results provided theoretical basis and basic materials for the breeding of new drought-resistant cotton varieties.
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    Effects of Three Bacillus Agents on Seedling Growth of Flue-cured Tobacco
    Yuqin XIAO, Xiao LEI, Mingjin ZHANG, Yuangai ZHANG, Shan TANG, Hongfei JI, Chuan WANG, Cuiling MA, Yanqiu JING
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (5): 85-92.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0559
    Abstract608)   HTML3)    PDF (669KB)(36)       Save

    In order to further understand the effects of microbial agents on the growth and development of root in tobacco seedling period,3 microbial agents including Brevibacilluslaterosporus, Bacillussubtilis and Bacilluslicheniformis were added into the floating seedling nutrient solution. Agronomic traits, root activity, antioxidant enzymes and chemical composition of tobacco leaves after transplantation were determined. The results showed that application of microbial agents had significant effects on agronomic traits, root activity, antioxidant enzymes and chemical components of flue-cured tobacco. Compared with CK, Brevibacilluslaterosporus increased the root fresh weight, root length, root surface area and volume of tobacco seedling, improved the activities of SOD, POD and CAT, significantly enhanced the root activity, increased the soluble protein content, reduced the MDA content, and made the leaf tobacco chemical composition more harmonious. So, Brevibacilluslaterosporus was recommended as adding microbial agents into the nutrient solution of floating tobacco seedlings, which should promote the root development of tobacco seedlings. The application of Brevibacilluslaterosporus could significantly enhance the activity of protective enzymes in the roots of tobacco seedlings, thus improve the growth and development of tobacco roots, cultivate strong seedlings and improve the quality of tobacco leaves.

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    Study on Nitrogen Reduction and Efficiency Increase Technology Under Water-fertilizer Integration of Summer Maize in Central Region of Shandong Province
    WU Guangjun, HUANG Zhiyin, ZHANG Chao, LU Duxu, ZHAI Naijia, QIAO Jian, LIU Weixia, WANG Ningning, WANG Guangming
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (10): 145-152.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0434
    Abstract587)      PDF (1141KB)(83)       Save
    In order to study the influence of water-fertilizer Integration on growth of summer maize in Central Region of Shandong province, five treatments were conducted including non-nitrogen (CK), reduction of nitrogen of water and fertilizer integration (W1N1), normal nitrogen of water and fertilizer integration (W1N2), reduction of nitrogen of conventional fertilizer and water management (W2N1), normal nitrogen of conventional fertilizer and water management (W2N2). The growth, nitrogen absorption and utilization of maize were investigated under different treatments. The results showed that: the grain yield, panicle number and 1 000-grain weight of maize in fertilization treatments were higher than those in no fertilization treatment. Under the same nitrogen application rate, the treatments of water and fertilizer integration could significantly increase corn grain yield, shoot biomass and total nitrogen accumulation of maize. The accumulation of dry matter, the absorption and accumulation of nitrogen after flowering in W1N2 treatment were significantly increased . The nitrogen transport amount and nitrogen transport rate in W1N1 treatment were increased. Compared with CK, the nitrogen transportation amount and transportation rate of nitrogen in W1N1 treatment were increased by 120.51% and 72.78%, respectively. In W1N1 treatment, the grain yield was higher, and the nitrogen transport efficiency, nitrogen partial productivity and nitrogen agronomic utilization efficiency were improved. So, the suitable reduction of nitrogen rate under water-fertilizer integration could not only enhance nitrogen use efficiency, but also high yield.
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    Microbial Community Structure of Potato Rhizosphere Soil and Its Response to Drought Stress
    Lili WANG, Congpei YIN, Feng LI, Zhimin YANG, Fangming LIU, Baisong LIN, Xiaojing LIU, Haijun LIU, Jing SUN, Dongdong SHAN, Jianghui CUI, Zhenqing ZHANG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (6): 58-69.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0692
    Abstract578)   HTML12)    PDF (4580KB)(71)       Save

    To study the microbial community structure of potato rhizosphere soil and its response to drought stress, the pot experiment was performed, and the rhizosphere soils of potatoes with different drought stress were as materials. The potatoes rhizosphere soil (planted soil) and CK soil were collected at flowering stages. Then the microbial DNA was isolated, and the V3~V4 region of bacteria was deep sequenced by Illumina Miseq. The characteristics of microbial community structure was analyzed. The results showed that a total of 1 263 889 effective sequences were identified, among which 6 785 OTUs belonged to 33 phyla, 94 classes, 267 orders, 462 families, 919 genera, and 1 930 species. Compared with CK soil before planted potato, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes were the dominant phyla in the rhizosphere soil after planted potato, and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly. Drought stress increased the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Pseudomonas. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that potatoes planted and drought stress were the main causes of variation in soil bacterial community structure. Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) profiling indicated that sequences related to metabolism, signaling transduction, defense mechanism and basic vital activity were enriched in the drought-treated rhizosphere soil, which might be important for plant survival and drought tolerance, and provided new insights for the researches of improving drought tolerance of potatoes by soil microorganisms.

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    Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of GH9 Gene Family in Gossypium barbadense L.
    LIU Zhengwen, WANG Xingfen, MENG Chengsheng, ZHANG Yan, SUN Zhengwen, WU Liqiang, MA Zhiying, ZHANG Guiyin
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (9): 30-45.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0312
    Abstract577)      PDF (26749KB)(324)       Save
    GH9 genes play  vital roles in the biosynthesis and remodeling of plant cell walls. The aim of this study was to discover fiber development-related GH9 genes by the identification and analysis of this gene family in Gossypium barbadense. A total of 53 GH9 genes were identified from Gossypium barbadense, and their physico-chemical properties, gene structure, chromosomal distribution and evolutionary history were analyzed. This paper also investigated the expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of GbGH9s during cotton fiber development. As a result, 53 GbGH9s were divided into three groups (A, B and C) and were distributed on 22 chromosomes. The expansion of GH9 gene family was mainly driven by polyploidization in Gossypium barbadense, and the duplicated genes had been under strong selective constraints. Some members of group A showed high expression levels during cotton fiber development, especially during secondary wall thickening. Some members of group C were highly expressed during cotton fiber initiation and elongation. In addition, the expression patterns of group B were relatively complex. Auxin and ethylene may have played important roles in the transcriptional regulation of GbGH9s. It improved cotton fiber strength by the introgression of GbGH9B6 into Gossypium hirsutum. The identification and analysis of GbGH9s were critical for understanding their evolution and functions, and provided a support for future studies.
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    Effects of Green Manure Turning Over and Nitrogen Reducing on Rice Yield, Quality and Soil Fertility
    LIANG Qin, ZHOU Zehong, MA Xueqing, QI Yan, JIANG Jin, HAN Wenbin, QUAN Ziman, MO Kun, LI Sheng, CAO Weidong
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (10): 124-130.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0587
    Abstract575)      PDF (975KB)(79)       Save
    In order to explore the effect of reducing the application of N fertilizer in green manure Lathyrus sativus on rice yield,  quality and soil fertility, six treatments were set up including winter fallow + 100% N fertilizer (CK), Lathyrus sativus + 60% N fertilizer (GM+N60), Lathyrus sativus + 70% N fertilizer (GM+N70), Lathyrus sativus + 80% N fertilizer (GM+N80), Lathyrus sativus + no fertilizer (GM) and winter fallow + no fertilization (NF). The results of three years field experiments showed that, compared with CK, Lathyrus sativus combined with reducing N fertilizer application could increase rice yield, GM+N70 and GM+N80 treatments significantly increased rice yields, which increased by 13.84% and 7.25%, respectively. And Lathyrus sativus combined with reducing N fertilizer application could improve brown rice rate, milled rice rate, head rice rate and protein content; reduce chalkiness, chalkiness grain rate and amylose content of rice. The head milled rice rate of GM+N70 treatment was the highest (78.02%), the chalkiness grain rate was the lowest (18.11%). The amylose content of GM+N80 treatment was the lowest (14.26%). The combined application of Lathyrus sativus and N fertilizer could significantly increase the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium. In conclusion, Lathyrus sativus and reducing N fertilizer application by 20%~30% should be beneficial to rice yield, quality and improvement of soil fertility, which provided theoretical basis for scientific application of N fertilizer after turning over Lathyrus sativus in Sichuan region.
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    Prediction on the Vegetation Coverage of Tribulus terrestris L. Based on the Continuous Wavelet Transform
    LIU Xin, YANG Guang, LIN Qun, ZHANG Longying, CHEN Haoyu, WANG Ning, LIU Feng, LIU Chen
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (10): 107-116.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0268
    Abstract557)      PDF (16075KB)(110)       Save

    The vegetation coverage is one of the most effective indicators to evaluate the desertification of land, and also is an important indicator for monitoring vegetation. Hyperspectral estimation of vegetation coverage can provide an important basis for vegetation monitoring. Tribulus terrestris L. fixed sand in the semi arid zone Togtoh County was as the research object, the spectral curve features of different vegetation coverages were analyzed; the correlation between the original spectral vegetation index of two wave bands and the vegetation coverage was extracted, and the optimal wave band combination was selected. The spectral reflectance ratio of vegetation was decomposed at the different scales by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and the optimal wave bands at the different decomposition scales were extracted. The vegetation coverage estimation models were established using the partial least square method (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) with the different independent variables. The results showed that: ① there was significant correlation between the original spectrum vegetation index and vegetation coverage with all the correlation coefficients above 0.55, and the optimal band combinations were DI (2 260 and 2 210 nm), RI (1 410 and 660 nm), NI (1 470 and 670 nm),RDVI(1 770 and 670 nm) and MSR(1 410 and 660 nm), respectively. ② There was also good correlation between the wavelet coefficient and vegetation coverage, which the correlation coefficients in the 1~10 scales of original spectral were high than 0.72 with the maximum correlation 0.788 9 in the sixth decomposition scale at the band 630 nm. The maximum correlation between the wavelet coefficient extracted from the first-order differential spectrum and the vegetation coverage was 0.806 9, and the correlations between the wavelet coefficient of 1~10 scale extracted from the second-order differential spectrum and the vegetation coverage were above 0.6 with the maximum correlation 0.781 8. ③Among the models established by using the original spectral vegetation index and wavelet coefficient extracted by CWT as the independent variables, the PLSR model input the second-order differential wavelet coefficient showed best precision and stability, which R 2 was 0.905 9 and RMSE was 0.035 6, respectively. These results showed that the CWT algorithm could improve spectral characteristic information, which provided a technical method for the estimated inversion of vegetation coverage.
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    Research Review on Crop Digital Twin System for Monitoring Growth Status and Environmental Response
    Wei LI, Deli ZHU, Qing WANG, Shaohua ZENG
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (6): 90-105.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0235
    Abstract556)   HTML21)    PDF (3460KB)(185)       Save

    At the digital and intelligent stage of agricultural production, people need to comprehensively and accurately understand crop growth status and farmland environment in real-time, and make corresponding analysis, feedback, and decision through relevant information. Aiming at this problem, this paper drew on the concept of the industrial digital twin system and summarized the interactive system between the synchronization of actual crop growth and simulated growth, the real-time status of crops, and the real-time management strategy of crops as a crop digital twin system. Based on the research at home and abroad, this paper pointed out that the crop digital twin system included the stages of acquiring and transmitting data, building models, and visualization interaction; its key technologies included sensor technology, image segmentation technology, modeling technology, and visualization technology. In addition, this paper considered that the research in this field could be carried out from the aspects of basic crop data, system model capabilities, and multi-platform collaborative interaction. The related research on crop digital twin system for monitoring growth status and environmental response had greater practical significance for intelligent and digital agricultural production, and also had greater application value in theory and application.

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    Proposal Application, Peer Review and Funding of the Basic Agriculture and Crop Science Discipline of National Natural Science Foundation in 2021
    Shanshan WEI, Xingfeng LI, Jing LUO
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (4): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2022.0130
    Abstract524)   HTML46)    PDF (2156KB)(344)       Save

    In order to continuously promote the reform of science funds, facilitate the balanced and coordinated sustainable development of discipline, the proposal application, review and funding conditions under the new application code of the basic agriculture and crop science discipline of National Natural Science Foundation in 2021 were analyzed. The category-specific application and review based on the 4 types of scientific natures were also analyzed, and main problems and suggestions existing in the project application were proposed.

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    Numerical Simulation for Effective Dielectric Properties of Cereal Grain Materials
    ZHONG Runeng, ZHENG Qinhong, YAO Bin, XIANG Tai
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2021, 23 (9): 103-111.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2020.0343
    Abstract500)      PDF (9284KB)(37)       Save
    The basic research on electromagnetic effect of agricultural materials has good application value in microwave-assisted application and device design.  Based on properties of cereal grains, this paper presented a novel method for modeling and numerical analysis, which combined discrete element method, finite element method and average energy method. The feasibility, validity and accuracy of the model were verified by numerical simulation and experimental measurements. The real and simulated results showed that the repose angle error of rice particle materials was 0.45%, and the maximum error between the numerical results of effective dielectric properties obtained by the simulation model and the experimental measurements were less than 5.0% in the calculation conditions of dielectric constant (2.0~10.0), dielectric loss factor (0.1~0.9), microwave frequency(2.0~11.7 GHz), moisture content (2.0%~19.7%) and volume fraction (18.2%~88.0%) of the cereal grain materials. This study provided basis for microwave processing and nondestructive sensing of cereal grains, and also provided  reference  for the simulation of dielectric properties of other kinds of granular agricultural products.
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    Development and Utilization of KASP Marker LCd-38 for Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grain
    Jun XU, Ting LI, Minjun HU, Yugen JIANG, Huili YAN, Wenxiu XU, Yijun YU, Zhenyan HE
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (3): 40-47.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.1037
    Abstract498)   HTML16)    PDF (2178KB)(237)       Save

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of staple food in China, and the cadmium pollution of rice threatens food security. Screening and breeding of rice varieties with low-cadmium accumulation can effectively reduce the risk, and accurate molecular markers play vital roles in it. In this study, taking the rice mini-core collection as the material, a KASP molecular marker LCd-38 was developed based on the functional SNP site in the gene related to grain cadmium accumulation. The cadmium-polluted soil safe to use was chosen as the experimental area, and LCd-38 was used to genotype and screen rice varieties with low cadmium-accumulation in grain. The developed marker LCd-38 could effectively divide different rice varieties into high-cadmium accumulation genotypes (CC) and low-cadmium accumulation genotypes (TT). 5 low-cadmium accumulation rice varieties and 5 high-cadmium accumulation rice varieties were quickly identified in the experimental area using leaves at seedling stage, which were consistent with the results of measured grain cadmium concentration at maturity stage. These results indicated that the molecular marker LCd-38 could efficiently and accurately predict the cadmium accumulation characteristics of different rice varieties and be used for early screening and molecular marker-assisted selection breeding of low-cadmium accumulation rice varieties.

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    Research and Application Prospect of Quinoa Cultivation Technology
    Tianming QI, Zhijian LI, Peiyou QIN, Guixing REN, Bangwei ZHOU
    Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology    2022, 24 (3): 157-165.   DOI: 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2021.0190
    Abstract487)   HTML4)    PDF (535KB)(137)       Save

    Quinoa is an annual dicotyledonous plant of the genus quinoa, which originated in the Andes Mountain of South America. It has become an important new crop of food and feeding in China after introduction. At present, quinoa has been mainly planted in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China Plain, Northeast Plain, Northwest China and Central China. Due to different geographical location and climate characteristics, its cultivation measures and the threat of diseases and pests are also different. In view of the wide range of quinoa planting areas, the confusion of cultivation techniques and the diversity of planting problems in China, this paper summarized the relevant cultivation techniques of different quinoa planting areas in China, and systematically elaborated the current situation of quinoa cultivation in China from the aspects of planting measures, field management, pest control and so on. The existing problems and future development prospects were proposed. According to the actual situation, all regions should fully tap the potential of quinoa production combined with respective ecological characteristics, which provided reference for further promoting the rapid development of quinoa industrialization in China.

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